মতামত

COVID PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

DR. S.I.SHELLEY NY.USA: Since the beginning of society, thre have been no end of theories and practice poving that tyranny is inevitable and that freedom –in –democracy is impossible ,thee is no more convenient ideology fo a rullingclass and its intellectual flunkies. These ae self fulfilling predictions , since they remain true only as long as they are taken to be tue. In the analysis by the the chairman Bagladesh Democratic Alliance Mr.Muhammad Sahabuddin Batchu , the only way of proving them true or false is in the struggle itsel.that stuggle from below has neer been stopped by thetheories and practice above ,andit has changed the world tim and again.the choose any of the forms of democratic alliance from –above is to look back to the old Bangladesh , To the old crap.the choose the road of Bangladesh Democratic Alliance fom below is to affim the beginning of a new Bangladesh under the umbrella Bangladesh Democratic alliance with new methodology to beautify Bangladesh in all way of Bangladesh.the Bangladesh Democratic alliance stand for.the new Bangladesh with peace pogrees and prosperity all citizens of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh democratic alliance analysis problems during the period of covid -19 and came forwad to make cociousness of peoples of Bangladesh and found that People’s desire to socialize, live life and see their relatives is not abnormal in the face of potential danger to themselves and others, and this desire is unlikely to change. What will happen in future? Nature threats soon and later new species will appear be ready for that..The democratic alliance scentist gropus analysis that The Spanish flu was more deadly than COVID. Ultimately, the virus mutated so much that it got less deadly. But remnants of this are still with us today and that is why we need to adapt and live with COVID in a way that the public is able to tolerate.For COVID, we have unique challenges. Unlike Ebola and SARS, it can be spread by people who don’t realize they have it. SARS made people too sick so they were unable to walk around infecting everyone and were only infectious while symptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 has a lot of walking well where it infects a lot of people but doesn’t kill enough of them to run out of victims. For most people, it’s so mild that it convinces others they don’t have to take it seriously.democratic alliance works visited doo to doors help people with clothes and winte clothere sanitary hygienic materials to the peoples. Given solutions to the peoples How has Omicron changed our approach to this virus? Before Omicron, our vaccines offered good protection against severe disease and infection. While they maintain good protection against severe disease with Omicron, they have mostly lost their major against infection.Two doses of either Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines still provide moderately high protection (about 70 per cent) against hospitalization (about 90 per cent with Delta), then up to about 90 per cent after a booster. However, two doses of either vaccine is less effective against symptomatic infection – for AstraZeneca this is very low, and even after a booster, protection wanes.Our results shows mistake shows the system is “overwhelmed.”But the most important thing to remember is this – those who are vaccinated or bolstered are far less likely to get very sick.The main focus for the vaccination program needs to pivot back to preventing serious illness and death. Any additional protection that vaccines can provide against infection is an added bonus.Having a breakthrough infection does not mean the vaccine has failed. If you test positive after being vaccinated or having a booster and have mild symptoms or no symptoms at all, then the vaccine has worked as it prevented you from getting severe disease. The vaccines are flame retardants, not impenetrable firewalls.Is Omicron less severe?Omicron causes cold-type symptoms but that does not mean it will be mild for everyone and some will get seriously ill. Data from South Africa, Denmark, USA and UK suggest if you catch Omicron then you are 30-80 per cent less likely to become seriously ill compared with Delta.A child greets Santa through a plastic shield in a shopping Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa.In South Africa, there was a 70-90 per cent reduction in risk of hospitalization compared with Delta. The majority of the people who are hospitalized are unvaccinated and the elderly. The percentage of cases that were hospitalized was far lower for Omicron than previous waves for all age groups, including children.For the first time, there has been an uncoupling between cases and hospitalizations, meaning that although there was such a steep rise in cases, there were fewer hospitalizations compared with Delta which means a less severe variant. The reason for this is unknown. It may partly be due to high percentage of people having previously being infected (natural immunity provides some protection) as vaccination coverage is only about 40 per cent, and additionally a less virulent variant.Data from other countries also indicates that although Omicron is highly transmissible, it causes milder disease overall. In Denmark, whose excellent surveillance aims to capture and sequence every case, Omicron cases skyrocketed to the point where they are no longer able to capture every case and are monitoring hospitalizations instead. Early indications (in a country with high coverage of Pfizer) suggest 60 per cent fewer Omicron hospitalizations than Delta. However, this is early days and transmission so far predominates in the 20-30 year olds.In the UK, many people have also had prior infection and have had AstraZeneca vaccine like here. There is a 45-80 per cent reduced risk of hospitalizations, but similar to Denmark, infections are mainly in young adults so far.A technician inspects samples during COVID-19 antibody neutralization testing at the African Health Research Institute (AHRI) in Durban, South Africa.What will happen here?Changes to the virus seem to have made it less severe in an individual, but reduced severity is also due to immunity as a result of vaccination and previous bouts of COVID.Old age is still the biggest risk factor for severe disease. Boosters will help protect the elderly even further. The majority of Australians over 60 years and/or clinically vulnerable should be due boosters about now and in January and need to be prioritised for vaccination.What about everyone else?More than 90 per cent of the age eligible population are double dosed with Pfizer and because they are younger, are at lower risk of severe disease from Omicron, and this includes unvaccinated children.Being an unvaccinated, older adult is the biggest risk for hospitalization. With about 10 per cent of the eligible population unvaccinated and breakthrough infections common – that still remains a large number of people who are susceptible. Over the next 6-8 weeks there will be lots of infections, an increase in hospitalizations and furloughed staff.
This will add further stress to healthcare services and needs to be avoided.How do we prevent infections?So, in the absence of any additional interventions, most of us will get infected at some stage whether we are unvaccinated, fully vaccinated or boostered.Some public health measures will be important as this pandemic is a long way from being over. Melbournians set a lockdown world record which will be remembered as one of the most extraordinary periods in our history – a time when people completely withdrew from social life to slow the spread of a dangerous pathogen and denied people access to family, and denied children their social development. What was doable in 2020 and 2021 is no longer palatable for most.To reduce infections now, some public health and safety measures are needed. The appetite for harsh measures, such as lockdowns, is no longer present. The critical issue is how to engage most people to adopt safe behaviors so they feel part of the solution, not strangulated, angered or made mentally unwell in the process.People’s desire to socialize, live life and see their relatives is not abnormal in the face of potential danger to themselves and others, and this desire is unlikely to change. The fact that this was made illegal for so long is something that is very raw and painful for many people.Recalibrating the response to the pandemic is critical and engaging the community essential. No individual measure is perfect. Something so simple as improving ventilation in workplaces, schools and other public places is not a personal imposition, won’t cause civil unrest but will help protect us from COVID and other common respiratory infections for years to come.Vaccination mandates are no longer scientifically sound. We should not have the unrealistic expectation that our current vaccines will prevent every infection, nor that it will be possible to chase every infection.Will this pandemic ever end?COVID has been catastrophic with about 5.5 million already dead and countless others having ongoing symptoms. We live on a planet with so much global inequity that much of Africa is unvaccinated. In our region, health systems are so weak that basic medical care, such as oxygen, is not even available. Elimination is such a long way off when only about 40 per cent of schools have a tap and one billion people live in a slum.So what’s going to happen next?In South Africa, it ripped through the community over a few weeks and now they are at the beginning of the tail end of Omicron. This is in a population with high prior exposure and low vaccination coverage, and a predominantly younger population.Viruses are most dangerous when they are introduced into a population that has never had contact with them before. The more “immunologically naive” people are, the more of them are likely to suffer from bad outcomes. In a population, like ours with high vaccination coverage, infection may achieve something close to herd immunity. This suggests that the next few months could provide us with significant protection against future strains of the virus.A combination of vaccination and prior infection, attenuation of the virus into a less severe version, improved ventilation, availability of rapid testing that is freely available and improvements in treatment could turn this virus into what sceptics wrongly called it at the beginning of the pandemic: a bad cold or flu.Perhaps Omicron is a key turning point in the pandemic. Variants will continue to arise and ongoing surveillance for severe disease is needed. But one thing is certain, unless we do more to improve global inequity, this will continue to go on and on for longer.Bangladesh democratic alliance after long work making conclusions thatLet’s hope 2022 brings a new dawn. Let’s the happy new year 2021 brings us peace prosperity and happiness The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019, and attempts to contain it there failed, allowing it to spread across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 23 December 2021, the pandemic had caused more than 277 million cases and 5.37 million deaths, making it one of the deadliest in history.COVID-19 symptoms range from none to deadly. Severe illness is more likely in elderly patients and those with certain underlying medical conditions. COVID-19 is airborne, spread via air contaminated by microscopic virions (viral particles). The risk of infection is highest among people in close proximity, but can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors in poorly ventilated areas. Transmission rarely occurs via contaminated surfaces or fluids. Infected persons are typically contagious for 10 days, often beginning before or without symptomsMutations produced many strains (variants) with varying degrees of infectivity and virulence. have been approved and widely distributed in various countries since December 2020. Other recommended preventive measures include social distancing, masking, improving ventilation and air filtration, and quarantining those who have been exposed or are symptomatic. Treatments include monoclonal antibodies and symptom control. Governmental interventions include travel restrictions, lockdowns, business restrictions and closures, workplace hazard controls, quarantines, testing systems, and tracing contacts of the infected.The pandemic triggered severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruption and panic buying. The resultant near-global lockdowns saw an unprecedented pollution decrease. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions intensified. The pandemic raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights.The pandemic is known by several names. It may be referred to as the “coronavirus pandemic despite the existence of other human coronaviruses that have caused epidemics and outbreaks (e.g. SARS)During the initial outbreak in Wuhan, the virus and disease were commonly referred to as “coronavirus”, “Wuhan coronavirus”,the coronavirus outbreak” and the “Wuhan coronavirus outbreak”[13] with the disease sometimes called “Wuhan pneumonia”.[14][15] In January 2020, the WHO recommended 2019-nCoVand 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease as interim names for the virus and disease per 2015 international guidelines against using geographical locations (e.g. Wuhan, China), animal species, or groups of people in disease and virus names in part to prevent social stigma WHO finalized the official names COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 on 11 February 2020]TedrosAdhanom explained: CO for corona, VI for virus, D for disease and 19 for when the outbreak was first identified (31 December 2019 WHO additionally uses “the COVID-19 virus” and “the virus responsible for COVID-19” in public communicationsWHO names variants of concern and variants of interest using Greek letters. The initial practice of naming them according to where the variants were identified (e.g. Delta began as the “Indian variant”) is no longer common.[21] A more systematic naming scheme reflects the variant’s PANGO lineage (e.g., Omicron’s lineage is B.1.1.529) and is used for other variantsSARS-CoV-2 is a newly discovered virus that is closely related to bat coronaviruses pangolin coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV The first known outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in November 2019. Many early cases were linked to people who had visited the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market there, but it is possible that human-to-human transmission began earlierThe scientific consensus is that the virus is most likely of zoonotic origin, from bats or another closely-related mammal Despite this, the subject has generated extensive speculation about alternate origins The origin controversy heightened geopolitical divisions, notably between the United States and ChinaThe earliest known infected person fell ill on 1 December 2019. That individual did not have a connection with the later wet market cluster.[39][40] However, an earlier case may have occurred on 17 November.[41] Two-thirds of the initial case cluster were linked with the market. Molecular clock analysis suggests that the index case is likely to have been infected between mid-October and mid-November 2019Official “case” counts refer to the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19 and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official protocols whether or not they experienced symptomatic disease. Many countries, early on, had official policies to not test those with only mild symptoms.Multiple studies claimed that total infections are considerably greater than reported cases The strongest risk factors for severe illness are obesity, complications of diabetes, anxiety disorders, and the total number of conditionsOn 9 April 2020, preliminary results found that in Gangelt, the centre of a major infection cluster in Germany, 15 percent of a population sample tested positive for antibodies.Screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women in New York City, and blood donors in the Netherlands, found rates of positive antibody tests that indicated more infections than reported.Seroprevalence-based estimates are conservative as some studies show that persons with mild symptoms do not have detectable antibodiesAn analysis in early 2020 of cases by age in China indicated that a relatively low proportion of cases occurred in individuals under 20It was not clear whether this was because young people were less likely to be infected, or less likely to develop symptoms and be tested.A retrospective cohort study in China found that children and adults were just as likely to be infected[Initial estimates of the basic reproduction number (R0) for COVID-19 in January were between 1.4 and 2.5 but a subsequent analysis claimed that it may be about 5.7 (with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.8 to 8.9 R0 can vary across populations/circumstances and is not to be confused with the effective reproduction number (commonly just called R), which takes into account mitigation efforts and immunity coming from vaccines and/or prior infection.As of December 2021, we find that the number of cases has continued to climb; this is due to several factors including new COVID-19 variants. As of 20 December there are 275,099,577 confirmed infected individuals worldwide

semi-log plot of weekly new cases of covid-19 in the world and the current top six countries (mean with deaths)scientist made conclusions: don’t rush on anythings when the time is right it will happen .see the graph scientice acceptance criteria.
More dangerous virus knocking at the door. Bangladesh Democratic alliance wants to alert people of Bangladesh.above mentioned analysis democratic alliance found dangerous days is coming fo Bangladesh.lot of people not have jobs, not have proper health care system n Bangladesh.lot of people living n rents if now job whee and how people will get food o money and how they will pay thei rents.peoples suffering will incease more and more.so , Bangladesh democratic alliance demand to have Bangladeshi citizens under government health care system like UNINITED STATES OF AMERICA. Government should provide food stamps system as USA doing , atleast people can purchase foods for survive and Bangladesh government should provide welfaere system people can pay their rent.goverment has huge money they are ready to give loan other counties millions and millions dollas but sorry to say lot of people hungry without food people even cant buy foods ,no milk babies and government gving loan other countries even thir own people hungry.
Democatitc alliance wants start system as per United States of Ameica system. We are sure that government can do it.if they stat now and follow up rules of law united states if this rules implemented today sure day by day our end turget will fullfil as per USA.
Chaiiman democratic alliance belive following righteous rues as USA our peoples will be happy.it is prove to whole wolda only their methods and technology is the only way to solution all problems facing the Bangladesh today.


COVID-19 total cases per 100 000 population from selected countries


covid-19 active cases per 100 000 population from selected countries
scientist integrity see the graphGravediggers wearing protection against contamination bury the body of a man suspected of having died of Covid-19 in the cemetery of Vila Alpina, east side of São Paulo, in April 2020.As of 23 December 2021, more than 5.37 million deaths had been attributed to COVID-19. The first confirmed death was in Wuhan on 9 January 2020. These numbers vary by region and over time, influenced by testing volume, healthcare system quality, treatment options, government response,[] time since the initial outbreak, and population characteristics, such as age, sex, and overall health. Multiple measures are used to quantify mortality.[68] Official death counts typically include people who died after testing positive. Such counts exclude deaths without a test.[69] Conversely, deaths of people who died from underlying conditions following a positive test may be included.[70] Countries such as Belgium include deaths from suspected cases, including those without a test, thereby increasing counts. Official death counts have been claimed to underreport the actual death toll, because excess mortality (the number of deaths in a period compared to a long-term average) data show an increase in deaths that is not explained by COVID-19 deaths alone.[4] Using such data, estimates of the true number of deaths from COVID-19 worldwide have included a range from 9.5 to 18.6 million by The Economist,[4] as well as over 10.3 million by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.[5] Such deaths include deaths due to healthcare capacity constraints and priorities, as well as reluctance to seek care (to avoid possible infection).The time between symptom onset and death ranges from 6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days.[73] Mortality rates increase as a function of age. People at the greatest mortality risk are the elderly and those with underlying conditions.

semi-log plot of weekly deaths due to covid-19 in the world and top six current countries (mean with cases).
with the new day comes new strength and new thoughts.


COVID-19 deaths per 100 000 population from selected countriesWHO provided two reporting codes for COVID-19: U07.1 when confirmed by laboratory testing and U07.2 for clinically or epidemiological diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is inconclusive or not available. The US did not implement U07.2 for mortality statistics “because laboratory test results are not typically reported on death certificates in the US, while U07.1 is used “If the death certificate reports terms such as ‘probable COVID-19’ or ‘likely COVID-19’Infection fatality ratio (IFR)The infection fatality ratio (IFR) is the cumulative number of deaths attributed to the disease divided by the cumulative number of infected individuals (including asymptomatic and undiagnosed infections). It is expressed in percentage points (not as a decimal Other studies refer to this metric as the ‘infection fatality risk’In November 2020, a review article in Nature reported estimates of population-weighted IFRs for various countries, excluding deaths in elderly care facilities, and found a median range of 0.24% to 1.49%.IFRs rise as a function of age (from 0.002% at age 10 and 0.01% at age 25, to 0.4% at age 55, 1.4% at age 65, 4.6% at age 75, and 15% at age 85). These rates vary by a factor of ~10,000 across the age groups For comparison the IFR for middle-aged adults is two orders of magnitude more likely than the annualised risk of a fatal automobile accident and far more dangerous than seasonal influenzaIn December 2020, a systematic review and meta-analysis estimated that population-weighted IFR was 0.5% to 1% in some countries (France, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Portugal), 1% to 2% in other countries (Australia, England, Lithuania, and Spain), and about 2.5% in Italy. This study reported that most of the differences reflected corresponding differences in the population’s age structure and the age-specific pattern of infections.Case fatality ratio (CFR)Another metric in assessing death rate is the case fatality ratio (CFR which is the ratio of deaths to diagnoses. This metric can be misleading because of the delay between symptom onset and death and because testing focuses on symptomatic individualsBased on Johns Hopkins University statistics, the global CFR is 1.94 percent (5,379,682 deaths for 277,238,940 cases) as of 23 December 2021 The number varies by region and has generally declined over time.
DiseaseSymptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness Common symptoms include headache, loss of smell and taste, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.[90] In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of cases. Of people who show symptoms, 81% develop only mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging) and 5% of patients suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction At least a third of the people who are infected with the virus do not develop noticeable symptoms at any point in time. These asymptomatic carriers tend not to get tested and can spread the disease.[96][97][98][99] Other infected people will develop symptoms later, called “pre-symptomatic”, or have very mild symptoms and can also spread the virus. As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days.Most people recover from the acute phase of the disease. However, some people – over half of a cohort of home-isolated young adults– continue to experience a range of effects, such as fatigue, for months after recovery, a condition called long COVID; long-term damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the diseaseThe respiratory route of spread of COVID-19, encompassing larger droplets and aerosols.The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route when people inhale droplets and small airborne particles (that form an aerosol) that infected people exhale as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing.Infected people are more likely to transmit COVID-19 when they are physically close. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.Infectivity can occur 1-3 days before the onset of symptoms.[110] Infected persons can spread the disease even if they are pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic Most commonly, the peak viral load in upper respiratory tract samples occurs close to the time of symptom onset and declines after the first week after symptoms begin.[110] Current evidence suggests a duration of viral shedding and the period of infectiousness of up to 10 days following symptom onset for persons with mild to moderate COVID-19, and a up to 20 days for persons with severe COVID-19, including immunocompromisedpersonsInfectious particles range in size from aerosols that remain suspended in the air for long periods of time to larger droplets that remain airborne or fall to the ground. Additionally, COVID-19 research has redefined the traditional understanding of how respiratory viruses are transmitted The largest droplets of respiratory fluid do not travel far, and can be inhaled or land on mucous membranes on the eyes, nose, or mouth to infect.[114] Aerosols are highest in concentration when people are in close proximity, which leads to easier viral transmission when people are physically close but airborne transmission can occur at longer distances, mainly in locations that are poorly ventilated in those conditions small particles can remain suspended in the air for minutes to hoursThe number of people generally infected by one infected person varies as only 10 to 20% of people are responsible for the disease’s spread It often spreads in clusters, where infections can be traced back to an index case or geographical location Often in these instances, superspreading events occur, where many people are infected by one personSARS CoV 2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses.t is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.Viral genetic sequence data can provide critical information about whether viruses separated by time and space are likely to be epidemiologically linked With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. By 12 January 2020, five genomes of SARS CoV 2 had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) and other institutions the number of genomes increased to 42 by 30 January 2020 A phylogenetic analysis of those samples showed they were “highly related with at most seven mutations relative to a common ancestor”, implying that the first human infection occurred in November or December 2019.[126] Examination of the topology of the phylogenetic tree at the start of the pandemic also found high similarities between human isolates As of 21 August 2021, 3,422 SARS CoV 2 genomes, belonging to 19 strains, sampled on all continents except Antarctica were publicly available.Demonstration of a nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 testingThe standard methods of testing for presence of SARS-CoV-2 are nucleic acid tests which detects the presence of viral RNA fragments As these tests detect RNA but not infectious virus, its “ability to determine duration of infectivity of patients is limited The test is typically done on respiratory samples obtained by a nasopharyngeal swab; however, a nasal swab or sputum sample may also be used Results are generally available within hours The WHO has published several testing protocols for the disease.Chest CT scans may be helpful to diagnose COVID-19 in individuals with a high clinical suspicion of infection but are not recommended for routine screening. Bilateral multilobar ground-glass opacities with a peripheral, asymmetric, and posterior distribution are common in early infection Subpleural dominance, crazy paving (lobular septal thickening with variable alveolar filling), and consolidation may appear as the disease progresses Characteristic imaging features on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of people who are symptomatic include asymmetric peripheral ground-glass opacities without pleural effusions.[140]Prevention: COVID-19 § Prevention, Face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic, and pandemic Without pandemic containment measures – such as social distancing, vaccination, and face masks – pathogens can spread exponentially This graphic shows how early adoption of containment measures tends to protect wider swaths of the population.Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection include getting vaccinated, staying at home, wearing a mask in public, avoiding crowded places, keeping distance from others, ventilating indoor spaces, managing potential exposure durations,washing hands with soap and water often and for at least twenty seconds, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and avoiding touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands.Those diagnosed with COVID-19 or who believe they may be infected are advised by the CDC to stay home except to get medical care, call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider, wear a face mask before entering the healthcare provider’s office and when in any room or vehicle with another person, cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue, regularly wash hands with soap and water and avoid sharing personal household A doctor at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center receiving a COVID-19 vaccinationA COVID 19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV 2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19). Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020 The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID 19.The COVID 19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the severity and death caused by COVID 19.Many countries have implemented phased distribution plans that prioritize those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workersAs of late-December 2021, more than 4.49 billion people had received one or more doses(8+ million in total) in over 197 countries. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was the most widely usedTreatmentFor the first two years of the pandemic no specific, effective treatment or cure was available In 2021, the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) approved the oral antiviral protease inhibitor, Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir plus AIDS drug ritonavir), to treat adult patients.FDA later gave it an EUA.A critically ill patient receiving invasive ventilation in the intensive care unit of the Heart Institute, University of São Paulo. Due to a shortage of mechanical ventilators, a bridge ventilator is being used to automatically actuate a bag valve mask.Most cases of COVID-19 are mild. In these, supportive care includes medication such as paracetamol or NSAIDs to relieve symptoms (fever,body aches, cough), adequate intake of oral fluids and rest Good personal hygiene and a healthy diet are also recommended.Supportive care includes treatment to relieve symptoms, fluid therapy, oxygen support and prone positioning, and medications or devices to support other affected vital organs.] More severe cases may need treatment in hospital. In those with low oxygen levels, use of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone is recommended, to reduce mortality Noninvasive ventilation and, ultimately, admission to an intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation may be required to support breathing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to address the issue of respiratory failure.Existing drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ivermectin and so-called early treatment are not recommended by US or European health authorities Two monoclonal antibody-based therapies are available for early use in high-risk cases.[168] The antiviral remdesivir is available in the US, Canada, Australia, and several other countries, with varying restrictions; however, it is not recommended for use with mechanical ventilation, and is discouraged altogether by the World Health Organization (WHO due to limited evidence of its efficacyWorld Health Organization video describing how variants proliferate in unvaccinated areasSeveral variants have been named by WHO and labeled as a variant of concern (VoC) or a variant of interest (VoI). They share the more infectious D614G mutation Delta dominated and then eliminated earlier VoC from most jurisdictions. Omicron’s immune escape ability may allow it to spread via breakthrough infections, which in turn may allow it to coexist with Delta, which more often infects the unvaccinated

 

 

 

Variants
Name Lineage Detected Countries Priority
Alpha
B.1.1.7
UK 190 VoC
Beta
B.1.351
South Africa 140 VoC
Delta
B.1.617.2
India 170 VoC
Gamma
P.1
Brazil 90 VoC
Lambda
C.37
Peru 30 VoI
Mu
B.1.621
Colombia 57 VoI
Omicron
B.1.1.529
Botswana 77 VoC[174]

The severity of COVID-19 varies. The disease may take a mild course with few or no symptoms, resembling other common upper respiratory diseases such as the common cold. In 3–4% of cases (7.4% for those over age 65) symptoms are severe enough to cause hospitalization.[175] Mild cases typically recover within two weeks, while those with severe or critical diseases may take three to six weeks to recover. Among those who have died, the time from symptom onset to death has ranged from two to eight weeks The Italian IstitutoSuperiore di Sanità reported that the median time between the onset of symptoms and death was twelve days, with seven being hospitalised. However, people transferred to an ICU had a median time of ten days between hospitalisation and death. Prolonged prothrombin time and elevated C-reactive protein levels on admission to the hospital are associated with severe course of COVID-19 and with a transfer to ICU.StrategiesThe CDC and WHO advise that masks (such as worn here by Taiwanese president Tsai Ing-wen) reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2.Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behavior changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into containment and mitigation. These can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact Moreover, progressively greater increases in healthcare capacity (raising the line) such as by increasing bed count, personnel, and equipment, help to meet increaseddemandContainmentContainment is undertaken to stop an outbreak from spreading into the general population. Infected individuals are isolated while they are infectious. The people they have interacted with are contacted and isolated for long enough to ensure that they are either not infected or no longer contagious. Successful containment or suppression reduces Rt to less than 1. Screening is the starting point for containment. Screening is done by checking for symptoms to identify infected individuals, who can then be isolated and/or offered treatment.[ MitigationShould containment fail, efforts focus on mitigation: measures taken to slow the spread and limit its effects on the healthcare system and society.Successful mitigation delays and decreases the epidemic peak, known as “flattening the epidemic curve”. This decreases the risk of overwhelming health services and provides more time for developing vaccines and treatments. Individual behavior changed in many jurisdictions. Many people worked from home instead of at their traditional workplaces. People chose to homeschool their children.Non-pharmaceutical interventionsNon-pharmaceutical interventions that may reduce spread include personal actions such as hand hygiene, wearing face masks, and self-quarantine; community measures aimed at reducing interpersonal contacts such as closing workplaces and schools and cancelling large gatherings; community engagement to encourage acceptance and participation in such interventions; as well as environmental measures such as surface cleaning Many such measures were criticised as hygiene theatre. Other measuresMore drastic actions, such as quarantining entire populations and strict travel bans have been attempted in various jurisdictions. China and Australia’s lockdowns have been the most strict. New Zealand implemented the most severe travel restrictions. South Korea introduced mass screening and localised quarantines, and issued alerts on the movements of infected individuals. Singapore provided financial support, quarantined, and imposed large fines for those who broke quarantine. Contact tracing attempts to identify recent contacts of newly-infected individuals, and to screen them for infection. The traditional approach is to request a list of contacts from infectees, and then telephone or visit the contacts.Another approach is to collect location data from mobile devices to identify those who have come in significant contact with infectees, which prompted privacy concerns.[191] On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple announced an initiative for privacy-preserving contact tracing.[192][193] In Europe and in the US, Palantir Technologies initially provided COVID-19 tracking services. WHO described increasing capacity and adapting healthcare as a fundamental mitigation. The ECDC and WHO’s European regional office issued guidelines for hospitals and primary healthcare services for shifting resources at multiple levels, including focusing laboratory services towards testing, cancelling elective procedures, separating and isolating patients, and increasing intensive care capabilities by training personnel and increasing ventilators and beds. The pandemic drove widespread adoption of telehealthImprovised manufacturingDue to capacity supply chains limitations, some manufacturers began 3D printing material such as nasal swabs and ventilator parts. In one example, an Italian startup received legal threats due to alleged patent infringement after reverse-engineering and printing one hundred requested ventilator valves overnight On 23 April 2020, NASA reported building, in 37 days, a ventilator which is undergoing further testing Individuals and groups of makers created and shared open source designs, and manufacturing devices using locally sourced materials, sewing, and 3D printing. Millions of face shields, protective gowns, and masks were made. Other ad hoc medical supplies included shoe covers, surgical caps, powered air-purifying respirators, and hand sanitizer. Novel devices were created such as ear savers, non-invasive ventilation helmets, and ventilator splittersHerd immunityIn July 2021, several experts expressed concern that achieving herd immunity may not be possible because Delta can transmit among vaccinated individuals CDC published data showing that vaccinated people could transmit Delta, something officials believed was less likely with other variants. Consequently, WHO and CDC encouraged vaccinated people to continue with NPIs.
Interactive timeline map of confirmed cases per million people
(drag circle to adjust; may not work on mobile devices)The outbreak was discovered in Wuhan in November 2019. It is possible that human-to-human transmission was happening before the discovery. Based on a retrospective analysis starting from December 2019, the number of cases in Hubei gradually increased, reaching 60 by 20 December and at least 266 by 31 DecemberA pneumonia cluster was observed on 26 December and treated by Doctor Zhang Jixian. He informed the Wuhan Jianghan CDC on 27 DecemberVision Medicals reported the discovery of a novel coronavirus to the China CDC (CCDC) on 28 December.On 30 December, a test report from CapitalBioMedlab addressed to Wuhan Central Hospital reported an erroneous positive result for SARS, causing doctors there to alert authorities. Eight of those doctors, including Li Wenliang (who was also punished on 3 January were later admonished by the police for spreading false rumours; and Dr. Ai Fen was reprimanded.That evening, Wuhan Municipal Health Commission (WMHC) issued a notice about “the treatment of pneumonia of unknown cause” The next day, WMHC made the announcement public, confirming 27 cases—enough to trigger an investigation.On 31 December, the WHO office in China was informed of cases of the pneumonia cases and immediately launched an investigation.Official Chinese sources claimed that the early cases were mostly linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which also sold live animals However, in May 2020, CCDC director George Gao indicated the market was not the origin (animal samples had tested negative). On 11 January, WHO was notified by the Chinese National Health Commission that the outbreak was associated with exposures in the market, and that China had identified a new type of coronavirus, which it isolated on 7 January.Initially, the number of cases doubled approximately every seven and a half days In early and mid-January, the virus spread to other Chinese provinces, helped by the Chinese New Year migration. Wuhan was a transport hub and major rail interchange. On 10 January, the virus’ genome was shared through GISAID. A retrospective study published in March found that 6,174 people had reported symptoms by 20 January. A 24 January report indicated human transmission, recommended personal protective equipment for health workers, and advocated testing, given the outbreak’s “pandemic potential”.[42][224] On 31 January the first published modelling study warned of inevitable “independent self-sustaining outbreaks in major cities globally” and called for “large-scale public health interventionsOn 30 January, 7,818 infections had been confirmed, leading WHO to declare the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). On 11 March, WHO elevated it to a pandemic.By 31 January, Italy had its first confirmed infections, in two tourists from China. On 19 March, Italy overtook China as the country with the most reported deaths. By 26 March, the United States had overtaken China and Italy as the country with the highest number of confirmed infections.[232] Genomic analysis indicated that the majority of New York’s confirmed infections came from Europe, rather than directly from Asia. Testing of prior samples revealed a person who was infected in France on 27 December 2019[234][235] and a person in the United States who died from the disease on 6 February. In October, WHO reported that one in ten people around the world may have been infected, or 780 million people, while only 35 million infections had been confirmed. On 9 November, Pfizer released trial results for a candidate vaccine, showing that 90% effectiveness against severe infection. That day, Novavax entered an FDA Fast Track application for their vaccine.On 14 December, Public Health England reported that a variant had been discovered in the UK’s southeast, predominantly in Kent. The variant, later named Alpha, showed changes to the spike protein that could be more infectious. As of 13 December, 1,108 infections had been confirmed.
CanSino was the first vaccine to be approved, by China on 24 June. Other vaccines were approved later that year, including Sputnik V (Russia), BNT162b2 (US, UK, EU and others), Sinopharm (Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates) and mRNA-1273 (US).On 2 January, the Alpha variant, first discovered in the UK, had been identified in 33 countries.[242]On 6 January, the Gamma variant was first identified in Japanese travellers returning from BrazilOn 29 January, it was reported that the Novavax vaccine was 49% effective against the Beta variant in a clinical trial in South Africa. The CoronaVac vaccine was reported to be 50.4% effective in a Brazil clinical trialOn 12 March, several countries stopped using the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine due to blood clotting problems, specifically cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) On 20 March, the WHO and European Medicines Agency found no link to thrombus, leading several countries to resume the vaccineIn March WHO reported that an animal host was the most likely origin, without ruling out other possibilitiesThe Delta variant was first identified in India. In mid-April, the variant was first detected in the UK and two months later it had metastasized into a third wave there, forcing the government to delay reopening that was originally scheduled for JuneOn November 10, Germany advised against the Moderna vaccine for people under 30.National reactions ranged from strict lockdowns to public education.WHO recommended that curfews and lockdowns should be short-term measures to reorganise, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect the health care systemAs of 26 March 2020, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown This increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April—more than half the world’s population.As of the end of 2021, Asia’s peak had come at the same time and at the same level as the world as a whole, in May 2021.However, cumulatively they had experienced only half the world average China opted for containment, inflicting strict lockdowns to eliminate spread.As of 14 July 2020, 83,545 cases had been confirmed in China, along with 4,634 deaths and 78,509 recoveries In November 2020 some 1 million people had been vaccinated, according to China’s state council. The vaccines included the BIBP, WIBP, and CoronaVacMultiple sources cast doubt upon the accuracy of China’s official numbers, with some suggesting intentional data suppression.
It was reported on 11 December 2021 that China had vaccinated 1.162 billion of its citizens, or 82.5% of the total population of the country against Covid-19Indian officials conducting temperature checks at the RathaYatra Hindu festival on 23 June 2020The first case in India was reported on 30 January 2020. India ordered a nationwide lockdown starting 24 March 2020 with a phased unlock beginning 1 June 2020. Six cities accounted for around half of reported cases—Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Pune and Kolkata.A second wave hit India in April 2021, straining healthcare services.Disinfection of Tehran Metro trains against COVID-19 transmission. Similar measures have also been taken in other countriesIran reported its first confirmed cases on 19 February 2020 in Qom. Early measures included the cancellation of concerts and other cultural events Friday prayers and education shutdowns. Iran became a centre of the pandemic in February 2020 More than ten countries had traced their outbreaks to Iran by 28 February, indicating a more severe outbreak than the 388 reported cases. The Iranian Parliament closed, after 23 of its 290 members tested positive on 3 March 2020.[] At least twelve sitting or former Iranian politicians and government officials had died by 17 March 2020. By August 2021, the pandemic’s fifth wave peaked, with more than 400 deaths in 1 day. In Japan, the pandemic was believed to have damaged mental health. According to the report by the country’s National Police Agency, suicides increased to 2,153 in October 2020. Experts stated that the pandemic had worsened mental health issues due to lockdowns and isolation from family members, among other issuesA drive-through test centre at the Gyeongju Public Health CentreCOVID-19 was confirmed in South Korea on 20 January 2020. Military bases were quarantined after tests showed three infected soldiersSouth Korea introduced what was then considered the world’s largest and best-organised screening programme, isolating infected people, and tracing and quarantining contacts Screening methods included mandatory self-reporting by new international arrivals through mobile application,combined with drive-through testing,and increasing testing capability to 20,000 people/day Despite some early criticisms South Korea’s programme was considered a success in controlling the outbreak without quarantining entire cities.The global COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Europe with its first confirmed case in Bordeaux, France, on 24 January 2020, and subsequently spread widely across the continent. By 17 March 2020, every country in Europe had confirmed a case, and all have reported at least one death, with the exception of Vatican City.Italy was the first European nation to experience a major outbreak in early 2020, becoming the first country worldwide to introduce a national lockdown.[291] By 13 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Europe the epicentre of the pandemic and it remained so until the WHO announced it has been overtaken by South America on 22 May.[294] By 18 March 2020, more than 250 million people were in lockdown in Europe.[295] Despite deployment of COVID-19 vaccines, Europe became the pandemic’s epicentre once again in late 2021.On 21 August, it was reported the COVID-19 cases were climbing among younger individuals across Europe.[297] On 21 November, it was reported by the Voice of America that Europe is the worst hit area by COVID-19, with numbers exceeding 15 million cases. On 22 November, the WHO indicated that a new surge of the virus in Europe had caused Austria to implement another lockdown, while other countries in the region such as Germany are contemplating a lockdown, due to rising cases, as well. The earliest discovered infection came from an old sample sample collected on 27 December 2019 A superspreader event in the outbreak was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February. It was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom were believed to have contracted the virus. On 13 March, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe ordered the closure of “non-essential” public places, and on 16 March, President Emmanuel Macron announced mandatory home confinement.

Civil Protection volunteers conduct health checks at the Guglielmo Marconi Airport in Bologna on 5 February 2020.The Italian outbreak began on 31 January 2020, when two Chinese tourists tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Rome.]Cases began to rise sharply, which prompted the government to suspend flights to and from China and declare a state of emergency. On 22 February 2020, the Council of Ministers announced a new decree-law to contain the outbreak, including quarantining more than 50,000 people in northern Italy. On 4 March the Italian government ordered schools and universities closed as Italy reached a hundred deaths. Sport was suspended completely for at least one month.On 11 March Conte stopped nearly all commercial activity except supermarkets and pharmaciesOn 19 March Italy overtook China as the country with the most COVID-19-related deaths On 19 April the first wave ebbed, as 7-day deaths declined to 433 On 13 October, the Italian government again issued restrictive rules to contain the second wave.On 10 November Italy surpassed 1 million confirmed infections. On 23 November, it was reported that the second wave of the virus had led some hospitals to stop accepting patientsResidents of Valencia, Spain, maintaining social distancing while queueing (20 March 2020)The virus was first confirmed to have spread to Spain on 31 January 2020, when a German tourist tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in La Gomera, Canary Islands.[315] Post-hoc genetic analysis has shown that at least 15 strains of the virus had been imported, and community transmission began by mid-FebruaryOn 29 March, it was announced that, beginning the following day, all non-essential workers were ordered to remain at home for the next 14 days By late March, the Community of Madrid has recorded the most cases and deaths in the country. Medical professionals and those who live in retirement homes have experienced especially high infection rates On 25 March, the official death toll in Spain surpassed that of mainland China.On 2 April, 950 people died of the virus in a 24-hour period—at the time, the most by any country in a single day.[320] On 17 May, the daily death toll announced by the Spanish government fell below 100 for the first time,[321] and 1 June was the first day without deaths by COVID-19.The state of alarm ended on 21 June.However, the number of cases increased again in July in a number of cities including Barcelona, Zaragoza and Madrid, which led to reimposition of some restrictions but no national lockdownAs of September 2021, Spain is one of the countries with the highest percentage of its population vaccinated (76% fully vaccinated and 79% with the first dose), while also being one of the countries more in favor of vaccines against COVID-19 (nearly 94% of its population is already vaccinated or wants to beSweden differed from most other European countries in that it mostly remained open Per the Swedish Constitution, the Public Health Agency of Sweden has autonomy that prevents political interference and the agency favoured remaining open. The Swedish strategy focused on longer-term measures, based on the assumption that after lockdown the virus would resume spreading, with the same result.[331][332] By the end of June, Sweden no longer had excess mortality. Devolution in the United Kingdom meant that each of its four countries developed its own response. England’s restrictions were shorter-lived than the others. The UK government started enforcing social distancing and quarantine measures on 18 March It was criticised for a perceived lack of intensity in its response. On 16 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson advised against non-essential travel and social contact, praising work from home and avoiding venues such as pubs, restaurants, and theatres.On 20 March, the government ordered all leisure establishments to close,[341] and promised to prevent unemployment On 23 March, Johnson banned gatherings and restricted non-essential travel and outdoor activity. Unlike previous measures, these restrictions were enforceable by police through fines and dispersal of gatherings. Most non-essential businesses were ordered to closeOn 24 April, it was reported that a promising vaccine trial had begun in England; the government pledged more than £50 million towards researchOn 16 April, it was reported that the UK would have first access to the Oxford vaccine, due to a prior contract; should the trial be successful, some 30 million doses would be availableOn 2 December, the UK became the first developed country to approve the Pfizer vaccine; 800,000 doses were immediately available for use On 9 December, MHRA stated that any individual with a significant allergic reaction to a vaccine, such as an anaphylactoid reaction, should not take the Pfizer vaccine. The first cases of the COVID-19 pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 in North America were reported in the United States on 23 January 2020. Cases were reported in all North American countries after Saint Kitts and Nevis confirmed a case on 25 March, and in all North American territories after Bonaire confirmed a case on 16 AprilPercentage of the population vaccinated with at least one dose as of November 6, 2021The virus was confirmed to have reached Canada on January 27, 2020, after an individual who had returned to Toronto from Wuhan, Hubei, China, tested positive. The first case of community transmission in Canada was confirmed in British Columbia on March 5. In March 2020, as cases of community transmission were confirmed, all of Canada’s provinces and territories declared states of emergency. Provinces and territories have, to varying degrees, implemented school and daycare closures, prohibitions on gatherings, closures of non-essential businesses and restrictions on entry. Canada severely restricted its border access, barring travellers from all countries with some exceptions. The federal Minister of Health invoked the Quarantine Act, introduced following the 2002–2004 SARS outbreakNear the end of summer 2021, cases began to surge across Canada, notably in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec and Ontario, particularly amongst the unvaccinated population. During this fourth wave of the virus, return to pandemic restrictions such as mask mandates were reinstated in provinces like British Columbia and Alberta Due to the surge in cases largely being a “pandemic of the unvaccinated”, vaccine passports were adopted in all provinces and two of the territories. 51,545,991confirmed cases have been reported in the United States with 812,069deaths, the most of any country, and the nineteenth-highest per capita worldwideAs many infections have gone undetected, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that, as of May 2021, there could be a total 120.2 million infections in the United States, or more than a third of the total population. COVID-19 is the deadliest pandemic in U.S. history;[ it was the third-leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2020, behind heart disease and cancer.From 2019 to 2020, U.S. life expectancy dropped by 3 years for Hispanic Americans, 2.9 years for African Americans, and 1.2 years for white AmericansThese effects have persisted as U.S. deaths due to COVID-19 in 2021 exceeded those in 2020.COVID-19 vaccines became available in December 2020, under emergency use, beginning the national vaccination program, with the first vaccine officially approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on August 23, 2021 Studies have shown them to be highly protective against severe illness, hospitalization, and death. In comparison with fully vaccinated people, the CDC found that those who were not vaccinated were from 5 to nearly 30 times more likely to become either infected or hospitalized. There has nonetheless been some vaccine hesitancy for various reasons, although side effects are rareThe COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached South America on 26 February 2020 when Brazil confirmed a case in São Paulo By 3 April, all countries and territories in South America had recorded at least one caseOn 13 May 2020, it was reported that Latin America and the Caribbean had reported over 400,000 cases of COVID-19 infection with, 23,091 deaths. On 22 May 2020, citing the rapid increase of infections in Brazil, the World Health Organization WHO declared South America the epicentre of the pandemiAs of 16 July 2021, South America had recorded 34,359,631 confirmed cases and 1,047,229 deaths from COVID-19. Due to a shortage of testing and medical facilities, it is believed that the outbreak is far larger than the official numbers showPresident JairBolsonaro created controversy by referring to the virus as a “little flu” and frequently speaking out against preventive measures such as lockdowns and quarantines. His attitude towards the outbreak was likened to that of then US President Trump. Bolsonaro was called the “Trump of the Tropics Bolsonaro later tested positive for the virus.In June 2020, the government of Brazil attempted to conceal active case and death and death counts, ceasing to publish cumulative data.The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Africa on 14 February 2020, with the first confirmed case announced in Egypt. The first confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa was announced in Nigeria at the end of February 2020. Within three months, the virus had spread throughout the continent, as Lesotho, the last African sovereign state to have remained free of the virus, reported a case on 13 May 2020. By 26 May, it appeared that most African countries were experiencing community transmission, although testing capacity was limited.[380] Most of the identified imported cases arrived from Europe and the United States rather than from China where the virus originated.[381]In early June 2021, Africa faced a third wave of COVID infections with cases rising in 14 countries.[382] By 4 July the continent recorded more than 251,000 new Covid cases, a 20% increase from the prior week and a 12% increase from the January peak. More than sixteen African countries, including Malawi and Senegal, recorded an uptick in new cases.[383] The World Health Organization labelled it Africa’s ‘Worst Pandemic Week Ever’. The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Oceania on 25 January 2020 with the first confirmed case reported in Melbourne, Australia.[385] It has since spread elsewhere in the region,[386] although many small Pacific island nations have thus far avoided the outbreak by closing their international borders. Two Oceania sovereign states (Nauru and Tuvalu) and one dependency (Cook Islands) have yet to report an active case. Australia and New Zealand were praised for their handling of the pandemic in comparison to other Western nations, with New Zealand and each state in Australia wiping out all community transmission of the virus several times even after re-introduction in the community. As a result of the high transmissibility of the Delta variant however, by August 2021, the Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria had conceded defeat in their eradication efforts. In early October 2021, New Zealand also abandoned its elimination strategy. Due to its remoteness and sparse population, Antarctica was the last continent to have confirmed cases of COVID-19 and was one of the last regions of the world affected directly by the pandemic The first cases were reported in December 2020, almost a year after the first cases of COVID-19 were detected in China. At least 36 people are confirmed to have been infected. ResponsesThe pandemic shook the world’s economy, with especially severe economic damage in the United States, Europe, and Latin America A consensus report by American intelligence agencies in April 2021 concluded, “Efforts to contain and manage the virus have reinforced nationalist trends globally, as some states turned inward to protect their citizens and sometimes cast blame on marginalized groups.” COVID-19 inflamed partisanship and polarisation around the world as bitter arguments exploded over how to respond. International trade was disrupted amid the formation of no-entry enclavesThe pandemic led many countries and regions to impose quarantines, entry bans, or other restrictions, either for citizens, recent travellers to affected areas,[ or for all travellers.Travel collapsed worldwide, damaging the travel sector. The effectiveness of travel restrictions was questioned as the virus spread across the world One study found that travel restrictions only modestly affected the initial spread, unless combined with other infection prevention and control measures.Researchers concluded that “travel restrictions are most useful in the early and late phase of an epidemic” and “restrictions of travel from Wuhan unfortunately came too lateThe European Union rejected the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel zoneUkraine evacuates Ukrainian and foreign citizens from Wuhan, China.Several countries repatriated their citizens and diplomatic staff from Wuhan and surroundings, primarily through charter flights. Canada, the United States, Japan, India Sri Lanka, Australia, France, Argentina, Germany, and Thailand were among the first to do so Brazil and New Zealand evacuated their own nationals and others On 14 March, South Africa repatriated 112 South Africans who tested negative, while four who showed symptoms were left behind Pakistan declined to evacuate its citizensOn 15 February, the US announced it would evacuate Americans aboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship and on 21 February, Canada evacuated 129 Canadians from the ship[ In early March, the Indian government began repatriating its citizens from Iran. On 20 March, the United States began to withdraw some troops from Iraq.United NationsainIn June 2020, the Secretary-General of the United Nations launched the UN Comprehensive Response to COVID-19.The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNSC) was criticised for its slow response, especially regarding the UN’s global ceasefire, which aimed to open up humanitarian access to conflict zones.WHOThe WHO spearheaded initiatives such as the COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund to raise money for the pandemic response, the UN COVID-19 Supply Chain Task Force, and the solidarity trial for investigating potential treatment options for the disease. The COVAX program, co-led by the WHO, Gavi, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), aimed to accelerate the development, manufacture, and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, and to guarantee fair and equitable access across the world

.efforts and courage are not enough without purpose and direction. Our efforts should eradicated virus otherwise we are undone.The pandemic and responses to it damaged the global economy. On 27 February, worries about the outbreak crushed US stock indexes, which posted their sharpest falls since 2008. Lloyd’s of London estimated that the global insurance industry would face losses of US$204 billion, exceeding the losses from the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season and 11 September attacks, suggesting that the pandemic would become the costliest disaster in human history.[422]Tourism collapsed due to travel restrictions, closing of public places including travel attractions, and advice of governments against travel. Airlines cancelled flights, while British regional airline Flybe collapsed. The cruise line industry was hard hit, and train stations and ferry ports closed.[425] International mail stopped or was delayed.

A socially distanced homeless encampment in San Francisco, California, in May 2020The retail sector faced reductions in store hours or temporary closures.[427] Retailers in Europe and Latin America faced traffic declines of 40 per cent. North America and Middle East retailers saw a 50–60 per cent drop. Shopping centres faced a 33–43 per cent drop in foot traffic in March compared to February. Mall operators around the world coped by increasing sanitation, installing thermal scanners to check the temperature of shoppers, and cancelling events. Hundreds of millions of jobs were lost globally. including more than 40 million Americans. According to a report by Yelp, about 60% of US businesses that closed will stay shut permanently. According to a United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America estimate, the pandemic-induced recession could leave 14–22 million more people in extreme poverty in Latin America According to the World Bank, up to 100 million more people globally could fall into extreme poverty due to the shutdowns The International Labour Organization (ILO) reported that the income generated in the first nine months of 2020 from work across the world dropped by 10.7 per cent, or $3.5 trillion.Supply shortagesThe outbreak has been blamed for supply shortages from panic buying (emptying groceries of essentials such as food, toilet paper, and bottled water), and disruption to factory and logistic operations. Shortages were worsened by supply chain disruptions from factory and port shutdowns, and labor shortages.Panic buying stemmed from perceived threat, perceived scarcity, fear of the unknown, coping behaviour and social psychological factors (e.g. social influence and trust).Shortages continued as managers underestimated the speed of economic recovery after the initial economic crash. The technology industry, in particular, warned of delays from underestimates of semiconductor demand for vehicles and other productsAccording to WHO’s Adhanom, demand for personal protection equipment (PPE) rose one hundredfold, pushing prices up twentyfold PPE stocks were exhausted everywhere.The pandemic disrupted global food supplies. In April 2020, World Food Programme head David Beasley said “we could be facing multiple famines of biblical proportions within a short few monthsBy contrast, petroleum products were in surplus at the beginning of the pandemic, as demand for gasoline and other products collapsed due to reduced commuting and other trips The 2021 global energy crisis was driven by a global surge in demand as the world economy recovered. Energy demand was particularly strong in AsiaCultureAn American Catholic military chaplain prepares for a live-streamed Mass in an empty chapel at Offutt Air Force Base in March 2020.
The performing arts and cultural heritage sectors have been profoundly affected by the pandemic, impacting organisations’ operations as well as individuals—both employed and independent—globally. By March 2020, across the world and to varying degrees, museums, libraries, performance venues, and other cultural institutions had been indefinitely closed with their exhibitions, events and performances cancelled or postponed Some services continued through digital platforms, such as live streaming concerts or web-based arts festivals. PoliticsAn Italian government task force meets to discuss COVID-19 in February 2020.The pandemic affected multiple countries’ political systems, causing suspensions of legislative activities,[457] isolations or deaths of politicians, and rescheduled elections. Although they developed broad support among epidemiologists, NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) were controversial in many countries. Intellectual opposition came primarily from other fields, along with a few heterodox epidemiologistsOn 23 March 2020, United Nations Secretary-General António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres appealed for a global ceasefire;172 UN Member States and Observers signed a non-binding supporting statement in June,[463] and the UN Security Council passed a resolution supporting it in July.China
The government of China was criticised by multiple countries for its handling of the pandemic. Multiple provincial-level administrators of the Communist Party of China were dismissed over their handling of quarantine measures. Some commentators claimed this move was intended to protect CCP general secretary Xi Jinping.The US intelligence community claimed that China intentionally under-reported its number of COVID-19 cases.The Chinese government maintained that it acted swiftly and transparently. Journalists and activists in China who reported on the pandemic were detained by authorities,[473][474] including Zhang Zhan, who was arrested and tortured for reporting on the pandemic and the detainment of other independent journalists.
Italy
In early March, the Italian government criticised the EU’s lack of solidarity with COVID-19-affected ItalyOn 22 March, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Russian president Vladimir Putin ordered the Russian army to send military medics, disinfection vehicles, and other medical equipment to Italy.[481][482] In early April, Norway and EU states like Romania and Austria started to offer help by sending medical personnel and disinfectant and Ursula von der Leyen offered an official apology to the countryUnited StatesSeveral hundred anti-lockdown protesters rallied at the Ohio Statehouse on 20 April 2020.The outbreak prompted calls for the United States to adopt social policies common in other wealthy countries, including universal health care, universal child care, paid sick leave, and higher levels of funding for public health. Some political analysts claimed that it contributed to Trump’s loss in the 2020 presidential election. Beginning in mid-April 2020, in several US states protests objected to government-imposed business closures and restricted personal movement and association.[491] Simultaneously, protests ensued by essential workers in the form of a general strike In early October 2020, Trump, his family members, and many other government officials were diagnosed with COVID-19. Russia sent a cargo plane with medical aid to the United States Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said “when offering assistance to US colleagues, [Putin] assumes that when US manufacturers of medical equipment and materials gain momentum, they will also be able to reciprocate if necessaryOther countriesRates of imprisoned or detained journalists increased worldwide, with some being related to the pandemicThe planned NATO “Defender 2020” military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states, the largest NATO war exercise since the end of the Cold War, was held on a reduced scale.The Iranian government was heavily affected by the virus, which infected some two dozen parliament members and political figures Iran President Hassan Rouhani wrote a public letter to world leaders asking for help on 14 March 2020, due to a lack of access to international markets.Saudi Arabia, which launched a military intervention in Yemen in March 2015, declared a ceasefireDiplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea worsened.] South Korea criticised Japan’s “ambiguous and passive quarantine efforts” after Japan announced anyone coming from South Korea must quarantine for two weeks. South Korean society was initially polarised on President Moon’s response to the crisis; many Koreans signed petitions calling for Moon’s impeachment or praising his response.Some countries passed emergency legislation. Some commentators expressed concern that it could allow governments to strengthen their grip on power In the Philippines, lawmakers granted president Rodrigo Duterte temporary emergency powers.In Hungary, the parliament voted to allow prime minister ViktorOrbán to rule by decree indefinitely, suspend parliament and elections, and punish those deemed to have spread false information about the government’s handling of the crisis. In countries such as Egypt Turkey,and Thailand, opposition activists and government critics were arrested for allegedly spreading fake news.In India, journalists criticising the government’s response were arrested or issued warnings by police and authoritiesFood systemsThe COVID-19 pandemic disrupted food systems worldwide.[513] COVID-19 hit at a time when hunger or undernourishment was rising, with an estimated 690 million people lacking food security in 2019 The UN estimated at the time that the pandemic would endanger 83–132 million others in 2020.This is mainly due to a lack of food access – driven by falling incomes, lost remittances and, in some cases, a rise in food prices. These issues were complicated by pandemic-caused disruptions to food production.The pandemic and its accompanying lockdowns and travel restrictions prevented movement of food aid. Famines were forecast, which the UN called a crisis “of biblical proportions,” or “hunger pandemic.” It was estimated that without intervention 30 million people may die of hunger, with Oxfam reporting that “12,000 people per day could die from COVID-19 linked hunger” by the end of 2020. This pandemic, in conjunction with the 2019–2021 locust infestations and several ongoing armed conflicts, is predicted to form the worst series of famines since the Great Chinese Famine, affecting between 10 and 20 per cent of the global population in some way.] 55 countries are reported to be at risk.[523] Per the World Health Organization 811 million individuals were undernourished in 2020, “likely related to the fallout of COVID-19”.The pandemic impacted educational systems in many countries. Many governments temporarily closed educational institutions, often replaced by online education. Other countries, such as Sweden, kept their schools open. As of September 2020, approximately 1.077 billion learners were affected due to school closures. School closures impacted students, teachers, and families with far-reaching economic and societal consequences. They shed light on social and economic issues, including student debt, digital learning, food insecurity, and homelessness, as well as access to childcare, health care, housing, internet, and disability services. The impact has been more severe for disadvantaged children and their families.The Higher Education Policy Institute conducted a report which discovered that around 63% of students claimed that their mental health had been worsened as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and alongside this 38% demonstrated satisfaction with the accessibility of mental health services. Despite this, the director for policy and advocacy at the institute has explained that it is still unclear as to how and when normality will resume for students regarding their education and living situationHealthThe pandemic impacted global health in ways far beyond the disease itself. It reduced hospital visits for other conditions. In the US, hospital visits for heart attack symptoms declined by 38%, compared to 40% in Spain.[527] The head of cardiology at the University of Arizona said, “My worry is some of these people are dying at home because they’re too scared to go to the hospital People with strokes and appendicitis were less likely to seek treatment Medical supply shortages impacted many peopleThe pandemic impacted mental health increasing anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, affecting healthcare workers, patients and quarantined individuals

Images from the NASA Earth Observatory show a stark drop in pollution in Wuhan, when comparing NO2 levels in early 2019 (top) and early 2020 (bottom). The pandemic and the reaction to it positively affected the environment and climate as a result of reduced human activity. During the “anthropause”, fossil fuel use decreased, resource consumption declined, and waste disposal was improved, generating less air and water pollution. Specifically, planned air travel and vehicle transportation declined throughout the pandemic. In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a 26% decrease in coal consumption, and a 50% reduction in nitrogen oxides emissions Earth systems scientist Marshall Burke estimated that two months of pollution reduction likely saved the lives of 77,000 Chinese residents.Discrimination and prejudiceHeightened prejudice, xenophobia, and racism have been documented around the world toward people of Chinese and East Asian descent. Reports from February 2020 (when most confirmed cases were confined to China) documented racist sentiments expressed worldwide about Chinese people ‘deserving’ the virus Chinese people and other Asian peoples in the United Kingdom and United States reported increasing levels of racist abuse and assaults Former US President Donald Trump was criticised for referring to the COVID-19 as the “Chinese Virus” and “Kung Flu”, which others condemned as racist and xenophobic.Age-based discrimination against older adults, while present before the pandemic, increased. This has been attributed to their perceived vulnerability to the virus and subsequent physical and social isolation measures, which, coupled with their reduced social activity, increased dependency on others. Similarly, limited digital literacy left the elderly more vulnerable to the effects of isolation, depression, and loneliness.Lifestyle changesThe pandemic triggered massive changes in behavior, from increased internet commerce to the job market. Online retailers in the US posted 791.70 billion dollars in sales in 2020, an increase of 32.4% from 598.02 billion dollars from the year before Home delivery orders increased, while indoor restaurant dining shut down due to lockdown orders or low sales.Hackers and cybercriminals/scammers took advantage of the changes to launch new attacks.Education in some countries temporarily shifted from physical attendance to video conferencing.]Massive layoffs shrank the airline, travel, hospitality, and other industries.Information disseminationResearch is indexed and searchable in the NIH COVID-19 Portfolio. Some newspaper agencies removed their online paywalls for some or all of their COVID-19-related articles and posts Some scientific publishers made pandemic-related papers available with open access.The share of papers published on preprint servers prior to peer review increased dramatically.Maps played a key role in communicating the spatial distribution of the pandemic. Multiple institutions developed dashboards to present data in near real-time Bangladesh People’s desire to socialize, live life and see their relatives is not abnormal in the face of potential danger to themselves and others, and this desire is unlikely to change. What will happen in future? Nature threats soon and later new species will appear be ready for that.The Spanish flu was more deadly than COVID. Ultimately, the virus mutated so much that it got less deadly. But remnants of this are still with us today and that is why we need to adapt and live with COVID in a way that the public is able to tolerate.For COVID, we have unique challenges. Unlike Ebola and SARS, it can be spread by people who don’t realize they have it. SARS made people too sick so they were unable to walk around infecting everyone and were only infectious while symptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 has a lot of walking well where it infects a lot of people but doesn’t kill enough of them to run out of victims. For most people, it’s so mild that it convinces others they don’t have to take it seriously.How has Omicron changed our approach to this virus?Before Omicron, our vaccines offered good protection against severe disease and infection. While they maintain good protection against severe disease with Omicron, they have mostly lost their mojo against infection.Two doses of either Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines still provide moderately high protection (about 70 per cent) against hospitalization (about 90 per cent with Delta), then up to about 90 per cent after a booster. However, two doses of either vaccine is less effective against symptomatic infection – for AstraZeneca this is very low, and even after a booster, protection wanes.Our results shows mistake shows the system is “overwhelmed.”But the most important thing to remember is this – those who are vaccinated or bolstered are far less likely to get very sick.The main focus for the vaccination program needs to pivot back to preventing serious illness and death. Any additional protection that vaccines can provide against infection is an added bonus.
Having a breakthrough infection does not mean the vaccine has failed. If you test positive after being vaccinated or having a booster and have mild symptoms or no symptoms at all, then the vaccine has worked as it prevented you from getting severe disease. The vaccines are flame retardants, not impenetrable firewalls.Is Omicron less severe?Omicron causes cold-type symptoms but that does not mean it will be mild for everyone and some will get seriously ill. Data from South Africa, Denmark, USA and UK suggest if you catch Omicron then you are 30-80 per cent less likely to become seriously ill compared with Delta.A child greets Santa through a plastic shield in a shopping Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa.In South Africa, there was a 70-90 per cent reduction in risk of hospitalization compared with Delta. The majority of the people who are hospitalized are unvaccinated and the elderly. The percentage of cases that were hospitalized was far lower for Omicron than previous waves for all age groups, including children.For the first time, there has been an uncoupling between cases and hospitalizations, meaning that although there was such a steep rise in cases, there were fewer hospitalizations compared with Delta which means a less severe variant. The reason for this is unknown. It may partly be due to high percentage of people having previously being infected (natural immunity provides some protection) as vaccination coverage is only about 40 per cent, and additionally a less virulent variant.Data from other countries also indicates that although Omicron is highly transmissible, it causes milder disease overall. In Denmark, whose excellent surveillance aims to capture and sequence every case, Omicron cases skyrocketed to the point where they are no longer able to capture every case and are monitoring hospitalizations instead. Early indications (in a country with high coverage of Pfizer) suggest 60 per cent fewer Omicron hospitalizations than Delta. However, this is early days and transmission so far predominates in the 20-30 year olds.In the UK, many people have also had prior infection and have had AstraZeneca vaccine like here. There is a 45-80 per cent reduced risk of hospitalizations, but similar to Denmark, infections are mainly in young adults so far.A technician inspects samples during COVID-19 antibody neutralization testing at the African Health Research Institute (AHRI) in Durban, South Africa.What will happen here?Changes to the virus seem to have made it less severe in an individual, but reduced severity is also due to immunity as a result of vaccination and previous bouts of COVID.Old age is still the biggest risk factor for severe disease. Boosters will help protect the elderly even further. The majority of Australians over 60 years and/or clinically vulnerable should be due boosters about now and in January and need to be prioritised for vaccination.What about everyone else?More than 90 per cent of the age eligible population are double dosed with Pfizer and because they are younger, are at lower risk of severe disease from Omicron, and this includes unvaccinated children.Being an unvaccinated, older adult is the biggest risk for hospitalization. With about 10 per cent of the eligible population unvaccinated and breakthrough infections common – that still remains a large number of people who are susceptible. Over the next 6-8 weeks there will be lots of infections, an increase in hospitalizations and furloughed staff. This will add further stress to healthcare services and needs to be avoided.How do we prevent infections?So, in the absence of any additional interventions, most of us will get infected at some stage whether we are unvaccinated, fully vaccinated or boostered.Some public health measures will be important as this pandemic is a long way from being over. Melbournians set a lockdown world record which will be remembered as one of the most extraordinary periods in our history – a time when people completely withdrew from social life to slow the spread of a dangerous pathogen and denied people access to family, and denied children their social development. What was doable in 2020 and 2021 is no longer palatable for most.To reduce infections now, some public health and safety measures are needed. The appetite for harsh measures, such as lockdowns, is no longer present. The critical issue is how to engage most people to adopt safe behaviors so they feel part of the solution, not strangulated, angered or made mentally unwell in the process.People’s desire to socialize, live life and see their relatives is not abnormal in the face of potential danger to themselves and others, and this desire is unlikely to change. The fact that this was made illegal for so long is something that is very raw and painful for many people.Recalibrating the response to the pandemic is critical and engaging the community essential. No individual measure is perfect. Something so simple as improving ventilation in workplaces, schools and other public places is not a personal imposition, won’t cause civil unrest but will help protect us from COVID and other common respiratory infections for years to come.Vaccination mandates are no longer scientifically sound. We should not have the unrealistic expectation that our current vaccines will prevent every infection, nor that it will be possible to chase every infection.Will this pandemic ever end?COVID has been catastrophic with about 5.5 million already dead and countless others having ongoing symptoms. We live on a planet with so much global inequity that much of Africa is unvaccinated. In our region, health systems are so weak that basic medical care, such as oxygen, is not even available. Elimination is such a long way off when only about 40 per cent of schools have a tap and one billion people live in a slum.So what’s going to happen next?In South Africa, it ripped through the community over a few weeks and now they are at the beginning of the tail end of Omicron. This is in a population with high prior exposure and low vaccination coverage, and a predominantly younger population.Viruses are most dangerous when they are introduced into a population that has never had contact with them before. The more “immunologically naive” people are, the more of them are likely to suffer from bad outcomes. In a population, like ours with high vaccination coverage, infection may achieve something close to herd immunity. This suggests that the next few months could provide us with significant protection against future strains of the virus.A combination of vaccination and prior infection, attenuation of the virus into a less severe version, improved ventilation, availability of rapid testing that is freely available and improvements in treatment could turn this virus into what sceptics wrongly called it at the beginning of the pandemic: a bad cold or flu.Perhaps Omicron is a key turning point in the pandemic. Variants will continue to arise and ongoing surveillance for severe disease is needed. But one thing is certain, unless we do more to improve global inequity, this will continue to go on and on for longer.let’s hope 2022 brings a new dawn. let’s the happy new year 2021 brings us peace prosperity and happiness the covid-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019, and attempts to contain it there failed, allowing it to spread across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 23 December 2021, the pandemic had caused more than 277 million cases and 5.37 million deaths, making it one of the deadliest in history.COVID-19 symptoms range from none to deadly. Severe illness is more likely in elderly patients and those with certain underlying medical conditions. COVID-19 is airborne, spread via air contaminated by microscopic virions (viral particles). The risk of infection is highest among people in close proximity, but can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors in poorly ventilated areas. Transmission rarely occurs via contaminated surfaces or fluids. Infected persons are typically contagious for 10 days, often beginning before or without symptomsMutations produced many strains (variants) with varying degrees of infectivity and virulence.COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and widely distributed in various countries since December 2020. Other recommended preventive measures include social distancing, masking, improving ventilation and air filtration, and quarantining those who have been exposed or are symptomatic. Treatments include monoclonal antibodies and symptom control. Governmental interventions include travel restrictions, lockdowns, business restrictions and closures, workplace hazard controls, quarantines, testing systems, and tracing contacts of the infected.The pandemic triggered severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruption and panic buying. The resultant near-global lockdowns saw an unprecedented pollution decrease. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions intensified. The pandemic raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights.The pandemic is known by several names. It may be referred to as the “coronavirus pandemic despite the existence of other human coronaviruses that have caused epidemics and outbreaks (e.g. SARS)During the initial outbreak in Wuhan, the virus and disease were commonly referred to as “coronavirus”, “Wuhan coronavirus”,the coronavirus outbreak” and the “Wuhan coronavirus outbreak with the disease sometimes called “Wuhan pneumonia”.[14][15] In January 2020, the WHO recommended 2019-nCoVand 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease as interim names for the virus and disease per 2015 international guidelines against using geographical locations (e.g. Wuhan, China), animal species, or groups of people in disease and virus names in part to prevent social stigma WHO finalized the official names COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 on 11 February 2020]TedrosAdhanom explained: CO for corona, VI for virus, D for disease and 19 for when the outbreak was first identified (31 December 2019 WHO additionally uses “the COVID-19 virus” and “the virus responsible for COVID-19” in public communicationsWHO names variants of concern and variants of interest using Greek letters. The initial practice of naming them according to where the variants were identified (e.g. Delta began as the “Indian variant”) is no longer common A more systematic naming scheme reflects the variant’s PANGO lineage (e.g., Omicron’s lineage is B.1.1.529) and is used for other variantsSARS-CoV-2 is a newly discovered virus that is closely related to bat coronaviruses pangolin coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV The first known outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in November 2019. Many early cases were linked to people who had visited the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market there, but it is possible that human-to-human transmission began earlierThe scientific consensus is that the virus is most likely of zoonotic origin, from bats or another closely-related mammal Despite this, the subject has generated extensive speculation about alternate origins The origin controversy heightened geopolitical divisions, notably between the United States and ChinaThe earliest known infected person fell ill on 1 December 2019. That individual did not have a connection with the later wet market cluster However, an earlier case may have occurred on 17 November Two-thirds of the initial case cluster were linked with the market. Molecular clock analysis suggests that the index case is likely to have been infected between mid-October and mid-November 2019Official “case” counts refer to the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19 and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official protocols whether or not they experienced symptomatic disease. Many countries, early on, had official policies to not test those with only mild symptoms.Multiple studies claimed that total infections are considerably greater than reported cases The strongest risk factors for severe illness are obesity, complications of diabetes, anxiety disorders, and the total number of conditionsOn 9 April 2020, preliminary results found that in Gangelt, the centre of a major infection cluster in Germany, 15 percent of a population sample tested positive for antibodies.Screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women in New York City, and blood donors in the Netherlands, found rates of positive antibody tests that indicated more infections than reported.Seroprevalence-based estimates are conservative as some studies show that persons with mild symptoms do not have detectable antibodiesAn analysis in early 2020 of cases by age in China indicated that a relatively low proportion of cases occurred in individuals under 20It was not clear whether this was because young people were less likely to be infected, or less likely to develop symptoms and be tested.A retrospective cohort study in China found that children and adults were just as likely to be infected[Initial estimates of the basic reproduction number (R0) for COVID-19 in January were between 1.4 and 2.5 but a subsequent analysis claimed that it may be about 5.7 (with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.8 to 8.9 R0 can vary across populations/circumstances and is not to be confused with the effective reproduction number (commonly just called R), which takes into account mitigation efforts and immunity coming from vaccines and/or prior infection.As of December 2021, we find that the number of cases has continued to climb; this is due to several factors including new COVID-19 variants. As of 20 December there are 275,099,577 confirmed infected individuals worldwide

semi-log plot of weekly new cases of covid-19 in the world and the current top six countries (mean with deaths)scientist made conclusions: don’t rush on anythings when the time is right it will happen .see the graph scientice acceptance criteria.


COVID-19 total cases per 100 000 population from selected countries


COVID-19 active cases per 100 000 population from selected countries
SCIENTIST INTEGRITY SEE THE GRAPHGravediggers wearing protection against contamination bury the body of a man suspected of having died of Covid-19 in the cemetery of Vila Alpina, east side of São Paulo, in April 2020.As of 23 December 2021, more than 5.37 million]deaths had been attributed to COVID-19. The first confirmed death was in Wuhan on 9 January 2020 These numbers vary by region and over time, influenced by testing volume, healthcare system quality, treatment options, government response time since the initial outbreak, and population characteristics, such as age, sex, and overall health.[]Multiple measures are used to quantify mortality Official death counts typically include people who died after testing positive. Such counts exclude deaths without a test Conversely, deaths of people who died from underlying conditions following a positive test may be included Countries such as Belgium include deaths from suspected cases, including those without a test, thereby increasing counts.Official death counts have been claimed to underreport the actual death toll, because excess mortality (the number of deaths in a period compared to a long-term average) data show an increase in deaths that is not explained by COVID-19 deaths alone Using such data, estimates of the true number of deaths from COVID-19 worldwide have included a range from 9.5 to 18.6 million by The Economist,[4] as well as over 10.3 million by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Such deaths include deaths due to healthcare capacity constraints and priorities, as well as reluctance to seek care (to avoid possible infection).The time between symptom onset and death ranges from 6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days Mortality rates increase as a function of age. People at the greatest mortality risk are the elderly and those with underlying conditions.

semi-log plot of weekly deaths due to covid-19 in the world and top six current countries (mean with cases).
with the new day comes new strength and new thoughts.


COVID-19 deaths per 100 000 population from selected countries
WHO provided two reporting codes for COVID-19: U07.1 when confirmed by laboratory testing and U07.2 for clinically or epidemiological diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is inconclusive or not available. The US did not implement U07.2 for mortality statistics “because laboratory test results are not typically reported on death certificates in the US, while U07.1 is used “If the death certificate reports terms such as ‘probable COVID-19’ or ‘likely COVID-19’Infection fatality ratio (IFR)The infection fatality ratio (IFR) is the cumulative number of deaths attributed to the disease divided by the cumulative number of infected individuals (including asymptomatic and undiagnosed infections). It is expressed in percentage points (not as a decimal Other studies refer to this metric as the ‘infection fatality risk’In November 2020, a review article in Nature reported estimates of population-weighted IFRs for various countries, excluding deaths in elderly care facilities, and found a median range of 0.24% to 1.49%.IFRs rise as a function of age (from 0.002% at age 10 and 0.01% at age 25, to 0.4% at age 55, 1.4% at age 65, 4.6% at age 75, and 15% at age 85). These rates vary by a factor of ~10,000 across the age groups For comparison the IFR for middle-aged adults is two orders of magnitude more likely than the annualised risk of a fatal automobile accident and far more dangerous than seasonal influenzaIn December 2020, a systematic review and meta-analysis estimated that population-weighted IFR was 0.5% to 1% in some countries (France, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Portugal), 1% to 2% in other countries (Australia, England, Lithuania, and Spain), and about 2.5% in Italy. This study reported that most of the differences reflected corresponding differences in the population’s age structure and the age-specific pattern of infections.Case fatality ratio (CFR)Another metric in assessing death rate is the case fatality ratio (CFR which is the ratio of deaths to diagnoses. This metric can be misleading because of the delay between symptom onset and death and because testing focuses on symptomatic individualsBased on Johns Hopkins University statistics, the global CFR is 1.94 percent (5,379,682 deaths for 277,238,940 cases) as of 23 December 2021 The number varies by region and has generally declined over time.
DiseaseSymptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness Common symptoms include headache, loss of smell and taste, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.[90] In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of cases.Of people who show symptoms, 81% develop only mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging) and 5% of patients suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction At least a third of the people who are infected with the virus do not develop noticeable symptoms at any point in time. These asymptomatic carriers tend not to get tested and can spread the disease Other infected people will develop symptoms later, called “pre-symptomatic”, or have very mild symptoms and can also spread the virus.As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days.Most people recover from the acute phase of the disease. However, some people – over half of a cohort of home-isolated young adults– continue to experience a range of effects, such as fatigue, for months after recovery, a condition called long COVID; long-term damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the diseaseThe respiratory route of spread of COVID-19, encompassing larger droplets and aerosols.The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route when people inhale droplets and small airborne particles (that form an aerosol) that infected people exhale as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing.Infected people are more likely to transmit COVID-19 when they are physically close. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.Infectivity can occur 1-3 days before the onset of symptoms.[110] Infected persons can spread the disease even if they are pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic Most commonly, the peak viral load in upper respiratory tract samples occurs close to the time of symptom onset and declines after the first week after symptoms begin Current evidence suggests a duration of viral shedding and the period of infectiousness of up to 10 days following symptom onset for persons with mild to moderate COVID-19, and a up to 20 days for persons with severe COVID-19, including immunocompromisedpersonsInfectious particles range in size from aerosols that remain suspended in the air for long periods of time to larger droplets that remain airborne or fall to the ground. Additionally, COVID-19 research has redefined the traditional understanding of how respiratory viruses are transmitted The largest droplets of respiratory fluid do not travel far, and can be inhaled or land on mucous membranes on the eyes, nose, or mouth to infect Aerosols are highest in concentration when people are in close proximity, which leads to easier viral transmission when people are physically close but airborne transmission can occur at longer distances, mainly in locations that are poorly ventilated in those conditions small particles can remain suspended in the air for minutes to hoursThe number of people generally infected by one infected person varies as only 10 to 20% of people are responsible for the disease’s spread It often spreads in clusters, where infections can be traced back to an index case or geographical location Often in these instances, superspreading events occur, where many people are infected by one personSARS CoV 2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses.t is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.Viral genetic sequence data can provide critical information about whether viruses separated by time and space are likely to be epidemiologically linked With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. By 12 January 2020, five genomes of SARS CoV 2 had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) and other institutions the number of genomes increased to 42 by 30 January 2020 A phylogenetic analysis of those samples showed they were “highly related with at most seven mutations relative to a common ancestor”, implying that the first human infection occurred in November or December 2019 Examination of the topology of the phylogenetic tree at the start of the pandemic also found high similarities between human isolates As of 21 August 2021, 3,422 SARS CoV 2 genomes, belonging to 19 strains, sampled on all continents except Antarctica were publicly available.Demonstration of a nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 testingThe standard methods of testing for presence of SARS-CoV-2 are nucleic acid tests which detects the presence of viral RNA fragments As these tests detect RNA but not infectious virus, its “ability to determine duration of infectivity of patients is limited The test is typically done on respiratory samples obtained by a nasopharyngeal swab; however, a nasal swab or sputum sample may also be used Results are generally available within hours The WHO has published several testing protocols for the disease.Chest CT scans may be helpful to diagnose COVID-19 in individuals with a high clinical suspicion of infection but are not recommended for routine screening. Bilateral multilobar ground-glass opacities with a peripheral, asymmetric, and posterior distribution are common in early infection Subpleural dominance, crazy paving (lobular septal thickening with variable alveolar filling), and consolidation may appear as the disease progresses Characteristic imaging features on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of people who are symptomatic include asymmetric peripheral ground-glass opacities without pleural effusions. PreventionCOVID-19 § Prevention, Face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic, and pandemic Without pandemic containment measures – such as social distancing, vaccination, and face masks – pathogens can spread exponentially This graphic shows how early adoption of containment measures tends to protect wider swaths of the population.Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection include getting vaccinated, staying at home, wearing a mask in public, avoiding crowded places, keeping distance from others, ventilating indoor spaces, managing potential exposure durations,washing hands with soap and water often and for at least twenty seconds, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and avoiding touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands.Those diagnosed with COVID-19 or who believe they may be infected are advised by the CDC to stay home except to get medical care, call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider, wear a face mask before entering the healthcare provider’s office and when in any room or vehicle with another person, cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue, regularly wash hands with soap and water and avoid sharing personal household A doctor at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center receiving a COVID-19 vaccinationA COVID 19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV 2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19). Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020 The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID 19.The COVID 19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the severity and death caused by COVID 19.Many countries have implemented phased distribution plans that prioritize those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workersAs of late-December 2021, more than 4.49 billion people had received one or more doses(8+ million in total) in over 197 countries. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was the most widely usedTreatmentFor the first two years of the pandemic no specific, effective treatment or cure was available In 2021, the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) approved the oral antiviral protease inhibitor, Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir plus AIDS drug ritonavir), to treat adult patients.FDA later gave it an EUA.A critically ill patient receiving invasive ventilation in the intensive care unit of the Heart Institute, University of São Paulo. Due to a shortage of mechanical ventilators, a bridge ventilator is being used to automatically actuate a bag valve mask.Most cases of COVID-19 are mild. In these, supportive care includes medication such as paracetamol or NSAIDs to relieve symptoms (fever,body aches, cough), adequate intake of oral fluids and rest Good personal hygiene and a healthy diet are also recommended.Supportive care includes treatment to relieve symptoms, fluid therapy, oxygen support and prone positioning, and medications or devices to support other affected vital organs.[162] More severe cases may need treatment in hospital. In those with low oxygen levels, use of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone is recommended, to reduce mortality.[163] Noninvasive ventilation and, ultimately, admission to an intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation may be required to support breathing.[164] Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to address the issue of respiratory failure.Existing drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ivermectin and so-called early treatment are not recommended by US or European health authorities Two monoclonal antibody-based therapies are available for early use in high-risk cases.[168] The antiviral remdesivir is available in the US, Canada, Australia, and several other countries, with varying restrictions; however, it is not recommended for use with mechanical ventilation, and is discouraged altogether by the World Health Organization (WHO due to limited evidence of its efficacyWorld Health Organization video describing how variants proliferate in unvaccinated areasSeveral variants have been named by WHO and labeled as a variant of concern (VoC) or a variant of interest (VoI). They share the more infectious D614G mutation Delta dominated and then eliminated earlier VoC from most jurisdictions. Omicron’s immune escape ability may allow it to spread via breakthrough infections, which in turn may allow it to coexist with Delta, which more often infects the unvaccinated

 

 

 

Variants
Name Lineage Detected Countries Priority
Alpha
B.1.1.7
UK 190 VoC
Beta
B.1.351
South Africa 140 VoC
Delta
B.1.617.2
India 170 VoC
Gamma
P.1
Brazil 90 VoC
Lambda
C.37
Peru 30 VoI
Mu
B.1.621
Colombia 57 VoI
Omicron
B.1.1.529
Botswana 77 VoC[174]

The severity of COVID-19 varies. The disease may take a mild course with few or no symptoms, resembling other common upper respiratory diseases such as the common cold. In 3–4% of cases (7.4% for those over age 65) symptoms are severe enough to cause hospitalization Mild cases typically recover within two weeks, while those with severe or critical diseases may take three to six weeks to recover. Among those who have died, the time from symptom onset to death has ranged from two to eight weeks The Italian IstitutoSuperiore di Sanità reported that the median time between the onset of symptoms and death was twelve days, with seven being hospitalised. However, people transferred to an ICU had a median time of ten days between hospitalisation and death. Prolonged prothrombin time and elevated C-reactive protein levels on admission to the hospital are associated with severe course of COVID-19 and with a transfer to ICU.StrategiesThe CDC and WHO advise that masks (such as worn here by Taiwanese president Tsai Ing-wen) reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2.Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behavior changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into containment and mitigation. These can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact Moreover, progressively greater increases in healthcare capacity (raising the line) such as by increasing bed count, personnel, and equipment, help to meet increased demand. ContainmentContainment is undertaken to stop an outbreak from spreading into the general population. Infected individuals are isolated while they are infectious. The people they have interacted with are contacted and isolated for long enough to ensure that they are either not infected or no longer contagious. Successful containment or suppression reduces Rt to less than 1Screening is the starting point for containment. Screening is done by checking for symptoms to identify infected individuals, who can then be isolated and/or offered treatmentMitigationShould containment fail, efforts focus on mitigation: measures taken to slow the spread and limit its effects on the healthcare system and society.Successful mitigation delays and decreases the epidemic peak, known as “flattening the epidemic curve”.] This decreases the risk of overwhelming health services and provides more time for developing vaccines and treatments. Individual behavior changed in many jurisdictions. Many people worked from home instead of at their traditional workplaces. People chose to homeschool their children.Non-pharmaceutical interventionsNon-pharmaceutical interventions that may reduce spread include personal actions such as hand hygiene, wearing face masks, and self-quarantine; community measures aimed at reducing interpersonal contacts such as closing workplaces and schools and cancelling large gatherings; community engagement to encourage acceptance and participation in such interventions; as well as environmental measures such as surface cleaning Many such measures were criticised as hygiene theatre. Other measuresMore drastic actions, such as quarantining entire populations and strict travel bans have been attempted in various jurisdictions.[188] China and Australia’s lockdowns have been the most strict. New Zealand implemented the most severe travel restrictions. South Korea introduced mass screening and localised quarantines, and issued alerts on the movements of infected individuals. Singapore provided financial support, quarantined, and imposed large fines for those who broke quarantineContact tracing attempts to identify recent contacts of newly-infected individuals, and to screen them for infection The traditional approach is to request a list of contacts from infectees, and then telephone or visit the contacts.Another approach is to collect location data from mobile devices to identify those who have come in significant contact with infectees, which prompted privacy concerns On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple announced an initiative for privacy-preserving contact tracing In Europe and in the US, Palantir Technologies initially provided COVID-19 tracking servicesWHO described increasing capacity and adapting healthcare as a fundamental mitigation. The ECDC and WHO’s European regional office issued guidelines for hospitals and primary healthcare services for shifting resources at multiple levels, including focusing laboratory services towards testing, cancelling elective procedures, separating and isolating patients, and increasing intensive care capabilities by training personnel and increasing ventilators and beds. The pandemic drove widespread adoption of telehealthImprovised manufacturingDue to capacity supply chains limitations, some manufacturers began 3D printing material such as nasal swabs and ventilator parts. In one example, an Italian startup received legal threats due to alleged patent infringement after reverse-engineering and printing one hundred requested ventilator valves overnight On 23 April 2020, NASA reported building, in 37 days, a ventilator which is undergoing further testing Individuals and groups of makers created and shared open source designs, and manufacturing devices using locally sourced materials, sewing, and 3D printing. Millions of face shields, protective gowns, and masks were made. Other ad hoc medical supplies included shoe covers, surgical caps, powered air-purifying respirators, and hand sanitizer. Novel devices were created such as ear savers, non-invasive ventilation helmets, and ventilator splittersHerd immunityIn July 2021, several experts expressed concern that achieving herd immunity may not be possible because Delta can transmit among vaccinated individuals CDC published data showing that vaccinated people could transmit Delta, something officials believed was less likely with other variants. Consequently, WHO and CDC encouraged vaccinated people to continue with NPIs.Interactive timeline map of confirmed cases per million people(drag circle to adjust; may not work on mobile devices)The outbreak was discovered in Wuhan in November 2019. It is possible that human-to-human transmission was happening before the discovery. Based on a retrospective analysis starting from December 2019, the number of cases in Hubei gradually increased, reaching 60 by 20 December and at least 266 by 31 DecemberA pneumonia cluster was observed on 26 December and treated by Doctor Zhang Jixian. He informed the Wuhan Jianghan CDC on 27 December Vision Medicals reported the discovery of a novel coronavirus to the China CDC (CCDC) on 28 December.On 30 December, a test report from CapitalBioMedlab addressed to Wuhan Central Hospital reported an erroneous positive result for SARS, causing doctors there to alert authorities. Eight of those doctors, including Li Wenliang (who was also punished on 3 January were later admonished by the police for spreading false rumours; and Dr. Ai Fen was reprimanded.That evening, Wuhan Municipal Health Commission (WMHC) issued a notice about “the treatment of pneumonia of unknown cause” The next day, WMHC made the announcement public, confirming 27 cases—enough to trigger an investigation.On 31 December, the WHO office in China was informed of cases of the pneumonia cases and immediately launched an investigation.Official Chinese sources claimed that the early cases were mostly linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which also sold live animals However, in May 2020, CCDC director George Gao indicated the market was not the origin (animal samples had tested negativeOn 11 January, WHO was notified by the Chinese National Health Commission that the outbreak was associated with exposures in the market, and that China had identified a new type of coronavirus, which it isolated on 7 January.Initially, the number of cases doubled approximately every seven and a half days In early and mid-January, the virus spread to other Chinese provinces, helped by the Chinese New Year migration. Wuhan was a transport hub and major rail interchange On 10 January, the virus’ genome was shared through GISAID A retrospective study published in March found that 6,174 people had reported symptoms by 20 January.[223] A 24 January report indicated human transmission, recommended personal protective equipment for health workers, and advocated testing, given the outbreak’s “pandemic potential”. On 31 January the first published modelling study warned of inevitable “independent self-sustaining outbreaks in major cities globally” and called for “large-scale public health interventionsOn 30 January, 7,818 infections had been confirmed, leading WHO to declare the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). On 11 March, WHO elevated it to a pandemic.By 31 January, Italy had its first confirmed infections, in two tourists from China On 19 March, Italy overtook China as the country with the most reported deaths By 26 March, the United States had overtaken China and Italy as the country with the highest number of confirmed infections.[232] Genomic analysis indicated that the majority of New York’s confirmed infections came from Europe, rather than directly from Asia.Testing of prior samples revealed a person who was infected in France on 27 December 2019 and a person in the United States who died from the disease on 6 FebruaryIn October, WHO reported that one in ten people around the world may have been infected, or 780 million people, while only 35 million infections had been confirmedOn 9 November, Pfizer released trial results for a candidate vaccine, showing that 90% effectiveness against severe infection That day, Novavax entered an FDA Fast Track application for their vaccine.On 14 December, Public Health England reported that a variant had been discovered in the UK’s southeast, predominantly in Kent. The variant, later named Alpha, showed changes to the spike protein that could be more infectious. As of 13 December, 1,108 infections had been confirmed.CanSino was the first vaccine to be approved, by China on 24 June. Other vaccines were approved later that year, including Sputnik V (Russia), BNT162b2 (US, UK, EU and others), Sinopharm (Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates) and mRNA-1273 (US).On 2 January, the Alpha variant, first discovered in the UK, had been identified in 33 countries.On 6 January, the Gamma variant was first identified in Japanese travellers returning from BrazilOn 29 January, it was reported that the Novavax vaccine was 49% effective against the Beta variant in a clinical trial in South Africa. The CoronaVac vaccine was reported to be 50.4% effective in a Brazil clinical trialOn 12 March, several countries stopped using the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine due to blood clotting problems, specifically cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) On 20 March, the WHO and European Medicines Agency found no link to thrombus, leading several countries to resume the vaccineIn March WHO reported that an animal host was the most likely origin, without ruling out other possibilitiesThe Delta variant was first identified in India. In mid-April, the variant was first detected in the UK and two months later it had metastasized into a third wave there, forcing the government to delay reopening that was originally scheduled for JuneOn November 10, Germany advised against the Moderna vaccine for people under 30.National reactions ranged from strict lockdowns to public education.WHO recommended that curfews and lockdowns should be short-term measures to reorganise, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect the health care systemAs of 26 March 2020, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown This increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April—more than half the world’s population.As of the end of 2021, Asia’s peak had come at the same time and at the same level as the world as a whole, in May 2021.However, cumulatively they had experienced only half the world average China opted for containment, inflicting strict lockdowns to eliminate spread.As of 14 July 2020, 83,545 cases had been confirmed in China, along with 4,634 deaths and 78,509 recoveries In November 2020 some 1 million people had been vaccinated, according to China’s state council. The vaccines included the BIBP, WIBP, and CoronaVacMultiple sources cast doubt upon the accuracy of China’s official numbers, with some suggesting intentional data suppression.It was reported on 11 December 2021 that China had vaccinated 1.162 billion of its citizens, or 82.5% of the total population of the country against Covid-19Indian officials conducting temperature checks at the RathaYatra Hindu festival on 23 June 2020The first case in India was reported on 30 January 2020. India ordered a nationwide lockdown starting 24 March 2020 with a phased unlock beginning 1 June 2020. Six cities accounted for around half of reported cases—Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Pune and Kolkata.A second wave hit India in April 2021, straining healthcare services.Disinfection of Tehran Metro trains against COVID-19 transmission. Similar measures have also been taken in other countriesIran reported its first confirmed cases on 19 February 2020 in Qom. Early measures included the cancellation of concerts and other cultural events Friday prayers and education shutdownsIran became a centre of the pandemic in February 2020 More than ten countries had traced their outbreaks to Iran by 28 February, indicating a more severe outbreak than the 388 reported cases The Iranian Parliament closed, after 23 of its 290 members tested positive on 3 March 2020 At least twelve sitting or former Iranian politicians and government officials had died by 17 March 2020By August 2021, the pandemic’s fifth wave peaked, with more than 400 deaths in 1 dayIn Japan, the pandemic was believed to have damaged mental health. According to the report by the country’s National Police Agency, suicides increased to 2,153 in October 2020. Experts stated that the pandemic had worsened mental health issues due to lockdowns and isolation from family members, among other issuesA drive-through test centre at the Gyeongju Public Health CentreCOVID-19 was confirmed in South Korea on 20 January 2020. Military bases were quarantined after tests showed three infected soldiersSouth Korea introduced what was then considered the world’s largest and best-organised screening programme, isolating infected people, and tracing and quarantining contacts Screening methods included mandatory self-reporting by new international arrivals through mobile application,combined with drive-through testing,and increasing testing capability to 20,000 people/day Despite some early criticisms South Korea’s programme was considered a success in controlling the outbreak without quarantining entire cities.The global COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Europe with its first confirmed case in Bordeaux, France, on 24 January 2020, and subsequently spread widely across the continent. By 17 March 2020, every country in Europe had confirmed a case and all have reported at least one death, with the exception of Vatican City.Italy was the first European nation to experience a major outbreak in early 2020, becoming the first country worldwide to introduce a national lockdown By 13 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Europe the epicentre of the pandemic and it remained so until the WHO announced it has been overtaken by South America on 22 May.[294] By 18 March 2020, more than 250 million people were in lockdown in Europe Despite deployment of COVID-19 vaccines, Europe became the pandemic’s epicentre once again in late 2021.On 21 August, it was reported the COVID-19 cases were climbing among younger individuals across Europe On 21 November, it was reported by the Voice of America that Europe is the worst hit area by COVID-19, with numbers exceeding 15 million casesOn 22 November, the WHO indicated that a new surge of the virus in Europe had caused Austria to implement another lockdown, while other countries in the region such as Germany are contemplating a lockdown, due to rising cases, as wellThe earliest discovered infection came from an old sample sample collected on 27 December 2019 A superspreader event in the outbreak was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February. It was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom were believed to have contracted the virus.On 13 March, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe ordered the closure of “non-essential” public places,[ and on 16 March, President Emmanuel Macron announced mandatory home confinement.Civil Protection volunteers conduct health checks at the Guglielmo Marconi Airport in Bologna on 5 February 2020.The Italian outbreak began on 31 January 2020, when two Chinese tourists tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Rome.]Cases began to rise sharply, which prompted the government to suspend flights to and from China and declare a state of emergencyOn 22 February 2020, the Council of Ministers announced a new decree-law to contain the outbreak, including quarantining more than 50,000 people in northern Italy. On 4 March the Italian government ordered schools and universities closed as Italy reached a hundred deaths. Sport was suspended completely for at least one month.On 11 March Conte stopped nearly all commercial activity except supermarkets and pharmaciesOn 19 March Italy overtook China as the country with the most COVID-19-related deaths On 19 April the first wave ebbed, as 7-day deaths declined to 433 On 13 October, the Italian government again issued restrictive rules to contain the second wave.On 10 November Italy surpassed 1 million confirmed infections. On 23 November, it was reported that the second wave of the virus had led some hospitals to stop accepting patients

Residents of Valencia, Spain, maintaining social distancing while queueing (20 March 2020)The virus was first confirmed to have spread to Spain on 31 January 2020, when a German tourist tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in La Gomera, Canary Islands Post-hoc genetic analysis has shown that at least 15 strains of the virus had been imported, and community transmission began by mid-FebruaryOn 29 March, it was announced that, beginning the following day, all non-essential workers were ordered to remain at home for the next 14 days By late March, the Community of Madrid has recorded the most cases and deaths in the country. Medical professionals and those who live in retirement homes have experienced especially high infection rates On 25 March, the official death toll in Spain surpassed that of mainland China.On 2 April, 950 people died of the virus in a 24-hour period—at the time, the most by any country in a single day. On 17 May, the daily death toll announced by the Spanish government fell below 100 for the first time and 1 June was the first day without deaths by COVID-19.The state of alarm ended on 21 June.However, the number of cases increased again in July in a number of cities including Barcelona, Zaragoza and Madrid, which led to reimposition of some restrictions but no national lockdownAs of September 2021, Spain is one of the countries with the highest percentage of its population vaccinated (76% fully vaccinated and 79% with the first dose), while also being one of the countries more in favor of vaccines against COVID-19 (nearly 94% of its population is already vaccinated or wants to be).]Sweden differed from most other European countries in that it mostly remained open. Per the Swedish Constitution, the Public Health Agency of Sweden has autonomy that prevents political interference and the agency favoured remaining open. The Swedish strategy focused on longer-term measures, based on the assumption that after lockdown the virus would resume spreading, with the same result By the end of June, Sweden no longer had excess mortalityDevolution in the United Kingdom meant that each of its four countries developed its own response. England’s restrictions were shorter-lived than the others. The UK government started enforcing social distancing and quarantine measures on 18 March It was criticised for a perceived lack of intensity in its response. On 16 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson advised against non-essential travel and social contact, praising work from home and avoiding venues such as pubs, restaurants, and theatres.On 20 March, the government ordered all leisure establishments to close and promised to prevent unemployment On 23 March, Johnson banned gatherings and restricted non-essential travel and outdoor activity. Unlike previous measures, these restrictions were enforceable by police through fines and dispersal of gatherings. Most non-essential businesses were ordered to closeOn 24 April, it was reported that a promising vaccine trial had begun in England; the government pledged more than £50 million towards researchOn 16 April, it was reported that the UK would have first access to the Oxford vaccine, due to a prior contract; should the trial be successful, some 30 million doses would be availableOn 2 December, the UK became the first developed country to approve the Pfizer vaccine; 800,000 doses were immediately available for use On 9 December, MHRA stated that any individual with a significant allergic reaction to a vaccine, such as an anaphylactoid reaction, should not take the Pfizer vaccine.North AmericaThe first cases of the COVID-19 pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 in North America were reported in the United States on 23 January 2020. Cases were reported in all North American countries after Saint Kitts and Nevis confirmed a case on 25 March, and in all North American territories after Bonaire confirmed a case on 16 AprilPercentage of the population vaccinated with at least one dose as of November 6, 2021
The virus was confirmed to have reached Canada on January 27, 2020, after an individual who had returned to Toronto from Wuhan, Hubei, China, tested positive. The first case of community transmission in Canada was confirmed in British Columbia on March 5. In March 2020, as cases of community transmission were confirmed, all of Canada’s provinces and territories declared states of emergency. Provinces and territories have, to varying degrees, implemented school and daycare closures, prohibitions on gatherings, closures of non-essential businesses and restrictions on entry. Canada severely restricted its border access, barring travellers from all countries with some exceptions. The federal Minister of Health invoked the Quarantine Act, introduced following the 2002–2004 SARS outbreakNear the end of summer 2021, cases began to surge across Canada, notably in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec and Ontario, particularly amongst the unvaccinated population. During this fourth wave of the virus, return to pandemic restrictions such as mask mandates were reinstated in provinces like British Columbia and Alberta Due to the surge in cases largely being a “pandemic of the unvaccinated”, vaccine passports were adopted in all provinces and two of the territories. 51,545,991confirmed cases have been reported in the United States with 812,069deaths, the most of any country, and the nineteenth-highest per capita worldwideAs many infections have gone undetected, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that, as of May 2021, there could be a total 120.2 million infections in the United States, or more than a third of the total population. COVID-19 is the deadliest pandemic in U.S. history;[ it was the third-leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2020, behind heart disease and cancer.From 2019 to 2020, U.S. life expectancy dropped by 3 years for Hispanic Americans, 2.9 years for African Americans, and 1.2 years for white AmericansThese effects have persisted as U.S. deaths due to COVID-19 in 2021 exceeded those in 2020.COVID-19 vaccines became available in December 2020, under emergency use, beginning the national vaccination program, with the first vaccine officially approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on August 23, 2021 Studies have shown them to be highly protective against severe illness, hospitalization, and death. In comparison with fully vaccinated people, the CDC found that those who were not vaccinated were from 5 to nearly 30 times more likely to become either infected or hospitalized. There has nonetheless been some vaccine hesitancy for various reasons, although side effects are rareThe COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached South America on 26 February 2020 when Brazil confirmed a case in São Paulo By 3 April, all countries and territories in South America had recorded at least one caseOn 13 May 2020, it was reported that Latin America and the Caribbean had reported over 400,000 cases of COVID-19 infection with, 23,091 deaths. On 22 May 2020, citing the rapid increase of infections in Brazil, the World Health Organization WHO declared South America the epicentre of the pandemic.As of 16 July 2021, South America had recorded 34,359,631 confirmed cases and 1,047,229 deaths from COVID-19. Due to a shortage of testing and medical facilities, it is believed that the outbreak is far larger than the official numbers show.[372]President JairBolsonaro created controversy by referring to the virus as a “little flu” and frequently speaking out against preventive measures such as lockdowns and quarantines. His attitude towards the outbreak was likened to that of then US President Trump. Bolsonaro was called the “Trump of the Tropics Bolsonaro later tested positive for the virus.In June 2020, the government of Brazil attempted to conceal active case and death and death counts, ceasing to publish cumulative data.The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Africa on 14 February 2020, with the first confirmed case announced in Egypt. The first confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa was announced in Nigeria at the end of February 2020. Within three months, the virus had spread throughout the continent, as Lesotho, the last African sovereign state to have remained free of the virus, reported a case on 13 May 2020.[378][379] By 26 May, it appeared that most African countries were experiencing community transmission, although testing capacity was limited. Most of the identified imported cases arrived from Europe and the United States rather than from China where the virus originated. In early June 2021, Africa faced a third wave of COVID infections with cases rising in 14 countries By 4 July the continent recorded more than 251,000 new Covid cases, a 20% increase from the prior week and a 12% increase from the January peak. More than sixteen African countries, including Malawi and Senegal, recorded an uptick in new cases. The World Health Organization labelled it Africa’s ‘Worst Pandemic Week Ever’.[384]The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Oceania on 25 January 2020 with the first confirmed case reported in Melbourne, Australia It has since spread elsewhere in the region,[386] although many small Pacific island nations have thus far avoided the outbreak by closing their international borders. Two Oceania sovereign states (Nauru and Tuvalu) and one dependency (Cook Islands) have yet to report an active case. Australia and New Zealand were praised for their handling of the pandemic in comparison to other Western nations, with New Zealand and each state in Australia wiping out all community transmission of the virus several times even after re-introduction in the community. As a result of the high transmissibility of the Delta variant however, by August 2021, the Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria had conceded defeat in their eradication efforts. In early October 2021, New Zealand also abandoned its elimination strategyDue to its remoteness and sparse population, Antarctica was the last continent to have confirmed cases of COVID-19 and was one of the last regions of the world affected directly by the pandemic The first cases were reported in December 2020, almost a year after the first cases of COVID-19 were detected in China. At least 36 people are confirmed to have been infected.

ResponsesThe pandemic shook the world’s economy, with especially severe economic damage in the United States, Europe, and Latin America A consensus report by American intelligence agencies in April 2021 concluded, “Efforts to contain and manage the virus have reinforced nationalist trends globally, as some states turned inward to protect their citizens and sometimes cast blame on marginalized groups.” COVID-19 inflamed partisanship and polarisation around the world as bitter arguments exploded over how to respond. International trade was disrupted amid the formation of no-entry enclavesThe pandemic led many countries and regions to impose quarantines, entry bans, or other restrictions, either for citizens, recent travellers to affected areas,[ or for all travellers.Travel collapsed worldwide, damaging the travel sector. The effectiveness of travel restrictions was questioned as the virus spread across the world One study found that travel restrictions only modestly affected the initial spread, unless combined with other infection prevention and control measures.Researchers concluded that “travel restrictions are most useful in the early and late phase of an epidemic” and “restrictions of travel from Wuhan unfortunately came too lateThe European Union rejected the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel zoneUkraine evacuates Ukrainian and foreign citizens from Wuhan, China.Several countries repatriated their citizens and diplomatic staff from Wuhan and surroundings, primarily through charter flights. Canada, the United States, Japan, India Sri Lanka, Australia, France, Argentina, Germany, and Thailand were among the first to do so Brazil and New Zealand evacuated their own nationals and others On 14 March, South Africa repatriated 112 South Africans who tested negative, while four who showed symptoms were left behind Pakistan declined to evacuate its citizensOn 15 February, the US announced it would evacuate Americans aboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship and on 21 February, Canada evacuated 129 Canadians from the ship[ In early March, the Indian government began repatriating its citizens from Iran. On 20 March, the United States began to withdraw some troops from Iraq.United NationsainIn June 2020, the Secretary-General of the United Nations launched the UN Comprehensive Response to COVID-19.The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNSC) was criticised for its slow response, especially regarding the UN’s global ceasefire, which aimed to open up humanitarian access to conflict zones.
WHOThe WHO spearheaded initiatives such as the COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund to raise money for the pandemic response, the UN COVID-19 Supply Chain Task Force, and the solidarity trial for investigating potential treatment options for the disease. The COVAX program, co-led by the WHO, Gavi, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), aimed to accelerate the development, manufacture, and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, and to guarantee fair and equitable access across the world

.efforts and courage are not enough without purpose and direction. Our efforts should eradicated virus otherwise we are undone.The pandemic and responses to it damaged the global economy. On 27 February, worries about the outbreak crushed US stock indexes, which posted their sharpest falls since 2008.[421]Lloyd’s of London estimated that the global insurance industry would face losses of US$204 billion, exceeding the losses from the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season and 11 September attacks, suggesting that the pandemic would become the costliest disaster in human history. ourism collapsed due to travel restrictions, closing of public places including travel attractions, and advice of governments against travel. Airlines cancelled flights, while British regional airline Flybe collapsed.[423] The cruise line industry was hard hit,[424] and train stations and ferry ports closed.[425] International mail stopped or was delayed. A socially distanced homeless encampment in San Francisco, California, in May 2020
The retail sector faced reductions in store hours or temporary closures. Retailers in Europe and Latin America faced traffic declines of 40 per cent. North America and Middle East retailers saw a 50–60 per cent drop. Shopping centres faced a 33–43 per cent drop in foot traffic in March compared to February. Mall operators around the world coped by increasing sanitation, installing thermal scanners to check the temperature of shoppers, and cancelling eventsHundreds of millions of jobs were lost globally. including more than 40 million Americans.] According to a report by Yelp, about 60% of US businesses that closed will stay shut permanently. According to a United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America estimate, the pandemic-induced recession could leave 14–22 million more people in extreme poverty in Latin America According to the World Bank, up to 100 million more people globally could fall into extreme poverty due to the shutdowns The International Labour Organization (ILO) reported that the income generated in the first nine months of 2020 from work across the world dropped by 10.7 per cent, or $3.5 trillion.Supply shortagesThe outbreak has been blamed for supply shortages from panic buying (emptying groceries of essentials such as food, toilet paper, and bottled water), and disruption to factory and logistic operations. Shortages were worsened by supply chain disruptions from factory and port shutdowns, and labor shortages.Panic buying stemmed from perceived threat, perceived scarcity, fear of the unknown, coping behaviour and social psychological factors (e.g. social influence and trust).Shortages continued as managers underestimated the speed of economic recovery after the initial economic crash. The technology industry, in particular, warned of delays from underestimates of semiconductor demand for vehicles and other productsAccording to WHO’s Adhanom, demand for personal protection equipment (PPE) rose one hundredfold, pushing prices up twentyfold PPE stocks were exhausted everywhere.The pandemic disrupted global food supplies. In April 2020, World Food Programme head David Beasley said “we could be facing multiple famines of biblical proportions within a short few monthsBy contrast, petroleum products were in surplus at the beginning of the pandemic, as demand for gasoline and other products collapsed due to reduced commuting and other trips The 2021 global energy crisis was driven by a global surge in demand as the world economy recovered. Energy demand was particularly strong in AsiaCultureAn American Catholic military chaplain prepares for a live-streamed Mass in an empty chapel at Offutt Air Force Base in March 2020.The performing arts and cultural heritage sectors have been profoundly affected by the pandemic, impacting organisations’ operations as well as individuals—both employed and independent—globally. By March 2020, across the world and to varying degrees, museums, libraries, performance venues, and other cultural institutions had been indefinitely closed with their exhibitions, events and performances cancelled or postponed Some services continued through digital platforms, such as live streaming concerts or web-based arts festivals. PoliticsAn Italian government task force meets to discuss COVID-19 in February 2020.The pandemic affected multiple countries’ political systems, causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolations or deaths of politicians,[458] and rescheduled elections. Although they developed broad support among epidemiologists, NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) were controversial in many countries. Intellectual opposition came primarily from other fields, along with a few heterodox epidemiologistsOn 23 March 2020, United Nations Secretary-General António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres appealed for a global ceasefire;172 UN Member States and Observers signed a non-binding supporting statement in June,[463] and the UN Security Council passed a resolution supporting it in July.ChinaThe government of China was criticised by multiple countries[466][467][468] for its handling of the pandemic. Multiple provincial-level administrators of the Communist Party of China were dismissed over their handling of quarantine measures. Some commentators claimed this move was intended to protect CCP general secretary Xi Jinping.The US intelligence community claimed that China intentionally under-reported its number of COVID-19 cases.The Chinese government maintained that it acted swiftly and transparently. Journalists and activists in China who reported on the pandemic were detained by authorities, including Zhang Zhan, who was arrested and tortured for reporting on the pandemic and the detainment of other independent journalists.ItalyIn early March, the Italian government criticised the EU’s lack of solidarity with COVID-19-affected ItalyOn 22 March, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Russian president Vladimir Putin ordered the Russian army to send military medics, disinfection vehicles, and other medical equipment to Italy. In early April, Norway and EU states like Romania and Austria started to offer help by sending medical personnel and disinfectant and Ursula von der Leyen offered an official apology to the countryUnited StatesSeveral hundred anti-lockdown protesters rallied at the Ohio Statehouse on 20 April 2020.The outbreak prompted calls for the United States to adopt social policies common in other wealthy countries, including universal health care, universal child care, paid sick leave, and higher levels of funding for public health. Some political analysts claimed that it contributed to Trump’s loss in the 2020 presidential election. Beginning in mid-April 2020, in several US states protests objected to government-imposed business closures and restricted personal movement and association. Simultaneously, protests ensued by essential workers in the form of a general strike. n early October 2020, Trump, his family members, and many other government officials were diagnosed with COVID-19. Russia sent a cargo plane with medical aid to the United States Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said “when offering assistance to US colleagues, [Putin] assumes that when US manufacturers of medical equipment and materials gain momentum, they will also be able to reciprocate if necessaryOther countriesRates of imprisoned or detained journalists increased worldwide, with some being related to the pandemicThe planned NATO “Defender 2020” military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states, the largest NATO war exercise since the end of the Cold War, was held on a reduced scale.The Iranian government was heavily affected by the virus, which infected some two dozen parliament members and political figures Iran President Hassan Rouhani wrote a public letter to world leaders asking for help on 14 March 2020, due to a lack of access to international markets.Saudi Arabia, which launched a military intervention in Yemen in March 2015, declared a ceasefireDiplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea worsened.] South Korea criticised Japan’s “ambiguous and passive quarantine efforts” after Japan announced anyone coming from South Korea must quarantine for two weeks. South Korean society was initially polarised on President Moon’s response to the crisis; many Koreans signed petitions calling for Moon’s impeachment or praising his response.Some countries passed emergency legislation. Some commentators expressed concern that it could allow governments to strengthen their grip on power In the Philippines, lawmakers granted president Rodrigo Duterte temporary emergency powers.In Hungary, the parliament voted to allow prime minister ViktorOrbán to rule by decree indefinitely, suspend parliament and elections, and punish those deemed to have spread false information about the government’s handling of the crisis. In countries such as Egypt Turkey,and Thailand, opposition activists and government critics were arrested for allegedly spreading fake news.In India, journalists criticising the government’s response were arrested or issued warnings by police and authoritiesFood systemsThe COVID-19 pandemic disrupted food systems worldwide.[513] COVID-19 hit at a time when hunger or undernourishment was rising, with an estimated 690 million people lacking food security in 2019 The UN estimated at the time that the pandemic would endanger 83–132 million others in 2020.This is mainly due to a lack of food access – driven by falling incomes, lost remittances and, in some cases, a rise in food prices. These issues were complicated by pandemic-caused disruptions to food production.The pandemic and its accompanying lockdowns and travel restrictions prevented movement of food aid. Famines were forecast, which the UN called a crisis “of biblical proportions or “hunger pandemic It was estimated that without intervention 30 million people may die of hunger, with Oxfam reporting that “12,000 people per day could die from COVID-19 linked hunger” by the end of 2020. This pandemic, in conjunction with the 2019–2021 locust infestations and several ongoing armed conflicts, is predicted to form the worst series of famines since the Great Chinese Famine, affecting between 10 and 20 per cent of the global population in some way.[522] 55 countries are reported to be at risk.[523] Per the World Health Organization 811 million individuals were undernourished in 2020, “likely related to the fallout of COVID-19”.[524]The pandemic impacted educational systems in many countries. Many governments temporarily closed educational institutions, often replaced by online education. Other countries, such as Sweden, kept their schools open. As of September 2020, approximately 1.077 billion learners were affected due to school closures. School closures impacted students, teachers, and families with far-reaching economic and societal consequences. They shed light on social and economic issues, including student debt, digital learning, food insecurity, and homelessness, as well as access to childcare, health care, housing, internet, and disability services. The impact has been more severe for disadvantaged children and their families.The Higher Education Policy Institute conducted a report which discovered that around 63% of students claimed that their mental health had been worsened as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and alongside this 38% demonstrated satisfaction with the accessibility of mental health services. Despite this, the director for policy and advocacy at the institute has explained that it is still unclear as to how and when normality will resume for students regarding their education and living situationHealthThe pandemic impacted global health in ways far beyond the disease itself. It reduced hospital visits for other conditions. In the US, hospital visits for heart attack symptoms declined by 38%, compared to 40% in Spain.[ The head of cardiology at the University of Arizona said, “My worry is some of these people are dying at home because they’re too scared to go to the hospital People with strokes and appendicitis were less likely to seek treatment Medical supply shortages impacted many peopleThe pandemic impacted mental health increasing anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, affecting healthcare workers, patients and quarantined individualsImages from the NASA Earth Observatory show a stark drop in pollution in Wuhan, when comparing NO2 levels in early 2019 (top) and early 2020 (bottom).[534]The pandemic and the reaction to it positively affected the environment and climate as a result of reduced human activity. During the “anthropause”, fossil fuel use decreased, resource consumption declined, and waste disposal was improved, generating less air and water pollution. Specifically, planned air travel and vehicle transportation declined throughout the pandemic. In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a 26% decrease in coal consumption, and a 50% reduction in nitrogen oxides emissions Earth systems scientist Marshall Burke estimated that two months of pollution reduction likely saved the lives of 77,000 Chinese residents.Discrimination and prejudiceHeightened prejudice, xenophobia, and racism have been documented around the world toward people of Chinese and East Asian descent.[537][538][539] Reports from February 2020 (when most confirmed cases were confined to China) documented racist sentiments expressed worldwide about Chinese people ‘deserving’ the virus Chinese people and other Asian peoples in the United Kingdom and United States reported increasing levels of racist abuse and assaults Former US President Donald Trump was criticised for referring to the COVID-19 as the “Chinese Virus” and “Kung Flu”, which others condemned as racist and xenophobic.Age-based discrimination against older adults, while present before the pandemic, increased. This has been attributed to their perceived vulnerability to the virus and subsequent physical and social isolation measures, which, coupled with their reduced social activity, increased dependency on others. Similarly, limited digital literacy left the elderly more vulnerable to the effects of isolation, depression, and loneliness.Lifestyle changesThe pandemic triggered massive changes in behavior, from increased internet commerce to the job market. Online retailers in the US posted 791.70 billion dollars in sales in 2020, an increase of 32.4% from 598.02 billion dollars from the year before Home delivery orders increased, while indoor restaurant dining shut down due to lockdown orders or low sales.Hackers and cybercriminals/scammers took advantage of the changes to launch new attacks.Education in some countries temporarily shifted from physical attendance to video conferencing.]Massive layoffs shrank the airline, travel, hospitality, and other industries.Information disseminationResearch is indexed and searchable in the NIH COVID-19 Portfolio. Some newspaper agencies removed their online paywalls for some or all of their COVID-19-related articles and posts Some scientific publishers made pandemic-related papers available with open access.The share of papers published on preprint servers prior to peer review increased dramatically.Maps played a key role in communicating the spatial distribution of the pandemic. Multiple institutions developed dashboards to present data in near real-time.
II
as a matter of fact, developing economies are also called less developed countries or third world countries.furthermore, a developing economy refers to a country, which is experiencing a gradual but sustained improvement in the economic welfare of its people.surely, being a developing country does not mean the country is hopeless at all.however, these countries have the potential of improving their fortunes by taking advantage of many opportunities which exist in their environment.examples of developing economies in africa are ghana, nigeria, burkina faso, liberia, etc. in addition to that, developing countries and the challenges they face is a subject of study in many schools in sub-saharan african schools, universities, and colleges.thus, it is not surprising to know that waec examines students around this area of questioning.therefore, we are here to assist you in to fully understand this topic very well. asks this question for examination purposes.times, we hear in the news about challenges in developing countries with the need for more infrastructure like hospitals, schools, roads, etc. and when we think about how to solve those problems, we imagine more money being invested in developing countries so that the infrastructure in developed countries can finally be brought over to other nations.but this isn’t how the world actually works. what the general public fails to understand is the extent to which the challenges faced by the developing world are fundamentally different than those we see in developed countries. carrying over the solutions from developed countries and attempting to crudely fit them into developing countries isn’t always effective… or even possible.one place where this problem definitely applies is when it comes to waste management infrastructure. while improvements for waste management infrastructure in developing countries don’t receive as much attention as urgent healthcare infrastructure or uplifting education infrastructure, there are several reasons why improving waste management is a priority in developing countries.a number of negative consequences exist due to current waste management practices in informal countries, from improper waste disposal leading to marine pollution) to informal waste collectors facing health and financial risks while making a living outside the typical waste management system but solving these problems by just applying solutions in developed countries won’t work. due to the differences in cultures, economic markets, and resources between developed and developing countries, there are some unique challenges that need to be addressed when it comes to improving the waste management system in developing countries.
open dumps and waste management planningthe first unique issue that needs to be tackled in developing countries is the frequent use of open dumps across several developing countries (in asia especially). unlike sanitary landfills that are typical in most developed countries, open dumps do not have proper standards to prevent waste from leaking from the dump into the surrounding environment (ex. like plastic waste entering rivers that lead to oceans). this is why waste in open dumps (and unsanitary landfills) is called ‘mismanaged’.

an open dump in manila in the philippines. a modern waste transfer station in kirkuk, iraq.these dumps are often a leading source of plastic pollution in developing countries). not too many plastic bags or plastic straws, but inadequate environmental management of the waste at these open dumps is what often leads to plastic waste entering rivers. and just 20 rivers around the world led to 67% of the plastic waste that ends up in the oceans in 2017 this is especially true in countries in asia, which is where 86% of plastic waste entered the ocean in 2015 so what to do about these open dumps? well, the first thing is to not just blame the developing countries in south asia for this waste and leave them to deal with it themselves. our marine ecosystems are all interconnected, so even if we pretend plastic pollution is another country’s problem — the waste will still end up in our shores and marine ecosystems.instead, what needs to happen is to reduce the likelihood of open dumps causing waste from leaking into the environment, either by transitioning away from their use or by improving enclosure around these open dumps to contain the waste. from the most recent data available, several developing countries rely on open dumps to dispose of the vast majority of their waste (ex. 77% in india, 75% across south asia
while these open dumps need to be replaced by other waste management infrastructure (like recycling systems, incinerators, or sanitary landfills) in the long run, there are more immediate problems that need to be solved in addressing the impact of these open dumps on the environment. for instance, a mckinsey report suggests that basic infrastructural upgrades (including creating enclosures for these dumps from unused materials) can reduce leakage by about 26% at costs of under $500,000 per dump asides from this, there also needs to be work on the non-environmental challenges of open dumps. for instance, with the hazardous working conditions for informal waste collectors there). approaches to organise the informal waste sector are very promising (ex. companies like plastic bank have worked with almost 20,000 informal waste collectors to provide safer material collection hubs outside of dumps).implementing a combination of these new environmental standards and working with local informal waste collectors is a key part of addressing the unique challenges of waste management systems in developing countries.perceptions of plastic pollution / recycling in developing countriesthen, another major challenge to overcome in developing countries is on the consumer side of waste management. in most developing countries, the recycling rate is relatively low compared to the average developed nation.for instance, only 9% of garbage was sorted and reused in indonesia in 2019 (for other countries like china, recent data is not available, although there are claims of recycling rates of up to 22% in 2014). in any case, these rates are noticeably lower than those in developed countries, so how do consumers fit into this problem (among other factors like technology)?recycling rates for several developed countries around the world in 2015 the first major factor that influences consumer recycling behaviour in developing countries is the accessibility of recycling services, often based on the convenience of recycling collection services). consumers who have easy access to recycling (like curbside recycling pickup found in many parts of north america) are 25% more likely to recycle ). these convenient collection programs are often not present in many parts of developing countries like china. as noted by a team of researchers in china:“lack of effective and convenient recycling facilities is one of the primary reasons for china’s plight in residential waste recycling.” this factor is starting to be addressed as infrastructure develops in urban areas of developing countries especially. for instance, the recycling rate increased in shanghai, china by 12.5% after the implementation of door-to-door recycling collection this development is not feasible in all parts of developing countries (ex. rural ones), however, so attention should also be directed to other major factors influencing consumer behaviour.for instance, the public’s perception of the effectiveness of recycling systems also plays a role in its willingness to make an effort to recycle. unfortunately, ineffective recycling infrastructure and sorting processes (especially due to a lack of standardisation in waste management processes) have created a persisting negative perception of recycling systems in developing countries, leading to residents taking less action to recycle. as described by the same researchers in china:“it has not helped [efforts to improve recycling rates in china] that some cities have encouraged garbage sorting, only to have residents discover that the trash all ends up in the same place” then, due to the public’s poor perception of the recycling system, there is a decreased effort to sort recyclable waste from non-recyclable waste. and due to this, recycling facilities see little public will to recycle and thus, do not want to invest in infrastructural and procedural improvements that could make the recycling system more efficient. this creates a negative feedback loop creating a barrier in increasing recycling rates.speaking of public perception, another common perception in several developing countries has to do with the informal waste collectors from earlier that often work in hazardous conditions in areas including open dumps. these members of society are often looked down upon and the profession is thought undignified. this has created generations of stigma against these important stakeholders that need to be addressed if the informal waste sector is to contribute to better waste management.to get around this, educational outreach to consumers and improvements in recycling systems for (formal/informal) waste management are needed concurrently. there quite literally need to be more ‘fresh starts’ with new recycling programs in municipalities in developing countries that ensure consumers are cognizant of the best practices and impact of recycling.
many nonprofit organisations currently try to support this dual initiative in much of the developed world). but there is a lot of work left in scaling these initiatives across the developing world, so that more waste is diverted from open dumps, landfills, etc. to avoid plastic pollution.attention needed: multilayered plastics usagenext, developing countries also face unique challenges when it comes to commercial and industrial businesses that use plastics. this is especially true given the prominent use of multi-layered packaging, which is a type of packaging that is very hard to recycle/reuse effectively due to difficulties with sorting different layers of plastic and other materials that make up multi-layered packaging.
to provide context to the problem, over 45% of plastic waste generated in 2015 was from packaging materials). and up to 56% of plastic packaging in developing countries consists of multi-layered materials). in fact, it is estimated that every residence in the u.s. uses 27kg of multi-layered plastic films each year, representing a $25b in north america alone (from interviews with organisations that are working to increase recycling rates in the developing world, it is evident that these materials still present a substantial challenge in creating better recycling systems). the most common way to manage these plastics is either sending them to landfills (or more often, open dumps in developing countries) or incineration so if these materials pose known challenges, why are they used in the first place? well, the reason is that they yield a substantially greater amount of benefits in comparison to their drawbacks. to list some of the many benefits of multi-layered materials (especially in developing countries in south asia, packaged (food products especially) require a shelf life of up to a year in challenging weather conditions (ex. high humidity or large temperature variability). even after 50 years of industrial research, multi-layered packaging including metallized films is the only feasible option developed for this.additionally, most commercial packaging requires ink printing that may contain materials which are toxic when ingested. alternatives to multi-layered packaging like cardboard or paper don’t offer products with adequate protection from these toxic materials used in printing.multi-layered packaging is often opaque due to metal films used. this prevents light from reaching products, which can decrease shelf life for edible products (especially ones that contain fat). alternative thin-film packaging that only has one recyclable plastic polymer (ex. ldpe) is often transparent.multi-layer packaging is extremely light and does not require a lot of material input when compared to alternatives like rigid plastic packaging, metals, or glass. this creates substantial savings in production, transportation, and other costs that more than compensate for the environmental impacts due to a lack of recyclability.
given increases in production, transportation, and end-of-life management costs, plastic alternatives often have higher environmental costs than current plastics (it should also be pointed out, however, that it isn’t always necessary to use multilayered plastics for these applications. for instance, a larger-scale restaurant or another business that buys products in multilayered sachets could likely switch to reusable containers and buy products in bulk (while saving money). furthermore, there is ongoing research on creating recyclable multilayer plastics, creating new processes to recycle existing multilayer plastics, and to create alternative materials to replace multilayer plastics so what to do here? well, it goes without saying that we need to find a better material than multi-layered plastics (when it comes to recyclability) eventually. in several individual cases, commercial stakeholders could feasibly transition away from single-use, multi-layered products — although there are other cases where consumers in developed countries might not be able to afford larger containers.that being said, there would be more harm done than benefit in phasing out their use completely to replace them with recyclable alternatives right now. this is where policies like india’s unfolding ban on single-use plastics (apart from multi-layered ones) are essential in considering the nuanced approach needed to increase recycling rates in developing countries (creating community adoptionfinally, the last major factor that’s needed in ensuring that solutions to improve recycling rates in developing countries are implemented in a scalable manner is to create acceptance of these solutions in local communities. this goes back to the core component of working to cater solutions to the particular needs of each country instead of crudely applying solutions from developed nations to developing countries.there are many promising technologies that could revolutionise the waste management system in developing countries. but forgetting how they will influence informal waste collectors in impoverished conditions, ordinary consumers that don’t trust current recycling systems, and producers that face tough choices when choosing materials is a recipe for an unscalable solution that makes people feel good, but doesn’t create a large change.one critical factor is to build trust and scalability in local communities when implementing new technologies, businesses, or products in developed countries. this is best done through local partnerships for most organisations, which are often not fully equipped to deal with the large regional diversity of challenges in different developing countries
a good case study of successful local partnerships can be seen with plastic bank’s initiative to launch services to help informal waste collectors and build recycling hubs in indonesia. given the logistical challenges for waste collectors to transport waste to recycling hubs, plastic bank partnered with local courier/ride-hailing service, gojek, to allow its logistics support to be streamlined with plastic bank’s work). this allowed for a more scalable launch in indonesia, with fewer challenges from local logistics issues.similarly, outreach initiatives in local communities can also help plastic bank and other organisations build trust in local networks to gain insight from community members. for instance, plastic bank partnered with the henkel schwarzkopf initiative, shaping futures, in the philippines to help train the youth from collector families in hairdressing. this will allow them to go from an internship at a local salon to employment to the possibility of starting a local business in the future this builds on the consistent opportunities plastic bank provides to the community members it works with to ‘recycle towards and for a better future’. this includes economic development/training opportunities, educational support, financial literacy training, and other programs (on top of which the vocational training from shaping futures occurs).the initiative also showcases how plastic producers/sellers (like henkel schwarzkopf) can create community outreach, as staff from the company make it possible to train youth in this program.youth impacted by plastic bank’s partnership in the philippines (source: plastic bank, 2020)
this ability to create meaningful connections in local communities has led to compounding growth for plastic bank, so it serves as a useful case study of the underlying approaches that would be part of any scalable solutions to solve the other major issues that prevent improvements in waste management infrastructure in developing countries.on the whole, it goes back to the fact that the majority of issues with waste management (like plastic pollution) occur in developing countries. yet, many prior efforts to address these issues have not accounted for the core differences between developed and developing countries. this is something that needs to change if we are to finally create a breakthrough in waste management systems in developing countries.medium is an open platform where 170 million readers come to find insightful and dynamic thinking. here, expert and undiscovered voices alike dive into the heart of any topic and bring new ideas to the surface. make medium yours.
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the consequences of high rate of population growth include unemployment, lack of capital, migration from rural to urban centers, inadequate infrastructural services, etc.to control the high rate of population growth, governments of developing economies must step up public education on birth control measures through effective family planning, programs.
III
unemployment:developing economies are always saddled with unemployment problems.the unemployment situation in ghana and other developing economies is not only affecting unskilled and uneducated people but graduates as well, many of whom are roaming in the cities and traveling abroad in search of employment.single export dependency:one of the main problems facing developing economies is that they depend on a single export item or few primary products.the dependence on a single export item is a very dangerous economic strategy as fluctuations in the world market may lead to decreasing export earnings from such items.to solve this problem, developing economies should adopt the policy of diversification of their export items. they should produce more of the non-. traditional export products.for example, ghana now exports maize, yarn, pineapples, charcoal, brooms, and handicrafts instead of relying on only cocoa.developing economies should also set up factories to process the raw materials into semi-finished or finished products and thereby increase their value to earn more foreign exchange.import dependency:this means greater dependence or reliance on goods and services from other countries.in west africa the citizens have developed a strong taste for imported goods and as such whatever the price, people prefer them to locally manufactured products.this is because it is normally assumed that the quality of imported goods is better than the locally manufactured products.this increases the import bills of west african countries as against low export figures leading to balance of payments deficits.imports discourage and kill the infant industries. the business skill of entrepreneurs is killed as the market for locally manufactured goods and services are often exploited by imports.to solve this problem the government can restrict imports by the use of quotas, embargoes, and tariffs.the citizens should also be encouraged to buy locally manufactured products and industries should also be encouraged to produce good quality products.shortage of high-level manpower:shortage of skilled manpower is another problem facing developing economies: manpower refers to the human resources of a country.the issue of brain drain which refers to the exodus of skilled manpower to other countries with better working conditions has now become associated with developing economies.engineers, doctors, accountants, etc. are in short supply because those trained leave (travel) the country to sell their services elsewhere.the gap created is filled by expatriate personnel whose remuneration is in excess of what is paid to locally trained personnel.to solve this problem, governments of developing countries should set up universities and other institutions to train. the citizens to provide the needed manpower.governments should also ensure that better working conditions are created in their countries in order to attract all those who are trained abroad to come back home and those who are already in these countries should be encouraged to stay and work harder.inadequacy of capital:this is another problem facing developing counties. capital accumulation in these economies is difficult because of the vicious cycle of poverty.low incomes lead to low savings, which leads to low investment and therefore low output.primitive methods of agriculture:despite the importance of agriculture to developing economies, the various governments have not been able to provide solutions to the many problems facing the sector especially the primitive methods of farming.most of the farmers still depend on the hoe and cutlass. they rely on natural rainfall as the main source of farming.it is high time west african countries started mechanized farming by using tractors, bulldozers, fertilizers, and sophisticated irrigational systems, and other modern agricultural practices which will lead to an increase in agricultural production.political instability:political instability should not be ignored when discussing the problems of developing economies. it is a vital force because there is a very close relationship between economic development and political stability.most developing countries are not politically stable, e.g., there are frequent changes in government, etc. normally political instability may introduce setbacks. to the economic progress of a country.if the government is unstable, foreign investors would stay away. governments should therefore create conditions needed for the attainment of stability.leadership problems:majority of the leaders in developing countries do not direct well the human and natural resources of such countries and this leads to low economic development.financial misappropriation/embezzlement:these are major problems associated with developing countries and these generally retard economic development.summary:from the above, educareguide can conclude that, the governments of developing countries must endeavour to put in programmes and policies to overcome these chronic problems.Conclusion:
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Now, please, subscribe to Educareguide and contact us for further assistance for your education. Finally, fill the contact form on the sidebar to reach us.and second world countries lies in the fact that the government authorities in these countries are not mindful of doing things smarter, which perhaps we all agree. But another factor largely contributing to the situation is the lake of a proper methodology to run variety of government departments or ministries. Lack of equipment or funds, whatever is the case, has made the third world problems multiply in years that could have overpowered with a proper strategy to cope them. The term “Developing Countries” has been used by many across the world to identify the countries that are still under the process of making a mark economically. Methodically country’s economy decides the category of a country on the world map.Government officials are not paying a heed to many of the issues faced by people in these countries. Rights are not protected; the ones below the poverty line are going further down under while the elite class is thriving socially and financially. Out of many of the social evils in these societies, the one that has crept in the most and poisoned the very structure of it is corruption. Justice is sold in many of these countries and nobody takes care of the poor and fragile strata of the society while the powerful enjoy committing corruptions of different forms and freeing from all dues. It is an irony that every sector in these countries has been destroyed to this menace. A threat to the society, corruption has by and large made every government organization fall from its grace and nobody feels wrong about it.Even in ministries and departments of state, ‘lack of attention’ and ‘NO will to change’ is the cause of such a sad state of affairs. Health, finance, education, railway, natural resources, all the sectors are being used for their own gains. None of the funds and taxes paid by the citizens is put to a good use in the respective sectors. No proper infrastructure is made available to the doctors so that they can work on diseases and their treatments. People cannot even get a proper treatment for the minor illnesses in many such countries. In the education sector, quality is deteriorating with each passing year. Nothing on reality has being done to look after the different setups like railways, roads and all the transportation and constructions are in an unimpressive condition if compared those with the developed or even semi-developed countries.The fact is, no proven working methodology neither an efficient technology ecosystem are accessible in such countries by any of its governing bodies to ensure an economically thriving and a technologically significant society. With many countries now a days working hard to make sure that their citizens are getting every facility in their homeland somewhat similar to the developed countries, are completely neglecting this truth that it’s Right Technology along with Right Methodology indeed has the potential to bring the changes and can help achieving such heights.We will be discussing primarily the Methodology part of the mystery in this article and the technology part will be discussed in my upcoming articles.A swift and affective plan should be employed by the governments of such countries with latest technologies like Artificial Intelligence & Cognitive and working methodologies like Agile, Lean to ensure that whatever these government departments are doing has some effects on the real economic growth and betterment of the society.Taking a cue from different industries like IT, Manufacturing, Automobile, Aviation etc.; researchers propose technology and methodology like Agile & Lean together to solve third world country problems on a larger scale. The structure of working in these methodologies makes them efficient in almost every industry. And they have been employed in many developed countries in different formats to solve real world problems. Just as in a software development process, the agile development ensures a quick and effective solution of software development problems, the same methodology, if applied by the government, can bring about a lot of changes and make it a much better one. Agile is an iterative process where the workers review and repeat their actions in order to reach a final goal. Reviewing is a great practice to help enhance a project and make it stand out even in the context of any government projects.This can be adopted in all government departments and projects where incremental, iterative and interactive approach will largely increase the probability of success, of course the other factors discussed above can nullify the positive move. Likewise, government should adopt this approach in Railway, Construction, Oil & Natural Gas, Mining, Heavy Industries, Agriculture and other departments and Govt. sponsored projects to keep a check and balance on the proceedings of the project and working of different departments. The “Sprint” approach ensures that the project is being supervised effectively and kept an eye rather than running the entire marathon and looking at the project once it has completed. Agile methodology ensures a check and balance of every step due to its iterative nature, which is good for every single project that should be installed for the betterment of the developing nations. This will prove to be a smooth process for the authorities since it will enable them to complete every project in a more deliberate manner.Now talking about the waste and delay in processes across all government projects in most of the third and second world countries, it is astonishing to see that how governments of these countries leave no stone unturned to keep every project of theirs hanging in balance for a longer period of time until the ones affected by it either give it up or are no more in this world. Ironically, many developing countries are facing these crises for ages. Why? This is because of huge wastes, loopholes in the planning and working methods of the governments which seriously demands an introspection.SixSigma and Lean methodologies were two entities, Lean manufacturing introduced by Toyota to make sure that there is reduced wastage in manufacturing as much as possible and Six Sigma introduced by Motorola advocates reduction of defects. How is this methodologies going to help improving government projects and departments of developing countries? The idea of lean six-sigma is to ensure less waste and added quality in every step of the process. This practice is believed to change the behavior and thinking of an organization. A transformation in perspective ensures that people are doing better and bigger. This methodology can also help in other important projects like road, railway, construction, mining etc. Different types of lean methodology like Visual Stream Mapping (VSM) and the 5s System has proven to be effective methods in different government projects of many developed countries.Lean Six-Sigma has been adopted in the healthcare by the governments of many countries. It is supposed to be the best and most promising methodology in healthcare since Six-Sigma works on the principle of reducing defects. These defects might include the difference between life and death. Such life-threatening errors can be eliminated with the help of Lean Six-Sigma and patient health and safety are kept intact.You must have heard about agile and lean implementation in many different industries, but directing this concept toward the government departments and projects as a hybrid framework is something that is completely new. Similar approach has already been implemented successfully in a small scale construction project in India under my supervision.Six Sigma Lean methodology is something that is already been applied in the some of the government departments in few developed countries, but hybridizing it with agile powered with different technology platforms is what makes it unique. So, the framework which I recommend for these countries is a hybridized version which leverages the best of Agile and Lean techniques which can be tailored to certain extent as per the need of the domain and scenario of implementation.Finally, these methodologies may not directly be applied to all types of Government projects or for that matter any project, in their original form and may need some amount of thoughtful tailoring to make those perfectly fit for the specific scenarios. But it’s guaranteed that a step towards implementing those even in their crude form can bring numerous benefits and confidence. the various proposed actions for reducing carbon dependency and ecological scarcity in Bangladesh discussed with the chairman Bangladesh democratic alliance a number of difficulties for low- and middle-income economies. Developing economies in particular face a number of important challenges in their efforts to move quickly to a low-carbon economic growth path, such as a lack of finance, a technology and skills gap, and uncertainty over a future global carbon market.Access to financing is a major constraint if Bangladesh are expected to invest in clean and low-carbon energy alternatives. The large-scale adoption of low-carbon and clean energy technologies by rapidly developing low- and middle-income economies will be necessary over the coming decades in order to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. This will require, in turn, a massive injection of capital investment. For example, for all Bangladesh economies to reach a target of having 20 percent of their total energy supply from clean energy sources by 2020 would require capital financing of almost billion dollars, of which nearly and billion billion a year would be needed until 2025. Similarly, if all Bangladesh honor their commitment to the International Action Programme (IAP) agreed at the 2004 International Conference for Renewable Energies in Bonn, a. List the amounts of gross saving and gross investment (as percentages of GDP) for: Bangladesh . On a scale diagram, with the investment rate on the horizontal axis and the saving rate on the vertical axis, plot the data for each of the chosen Do you see any relationship? c. Based on what you have learned explain why high investment rates are typically associated with high growth rates of GDP. d. In this chapter, we argued that some countries face a growth challenge because of their small pool of domestic saving. Based on your diagram from part (a), explain the importance of domestic saving. 4. Go to the World Bank’s website (www.worldbank.org). Search for “Data” and then select “Data by Topic.” Choose “Agricultural Output and Productivity” and then answer the following questions. a. List the agricultural value added per worker for the following countries: Australia Dominican Republic Netherlands Botswana Haiti Niger Chile India Paraguay b. Can you offer some possible explanations for the greater productivity in agriculture in the developed countries? 5. In the text we discussed that an adequate infrastructure is important to economic development. Go to the website for the United Nations (www.un.org). From the home page go to “Economic and Social Development.” Then click on “Statistics” and search for “Social Indicators.” Then answer the following questions. a. List the percentage of the population with access to safe water and to sanitation (both urban and rural populations) for: Afghanistan Norway Bahrain South Africa Colombia Thailand Indonesia b. According to the “Washington Consensus,” should the public or the private sector be providing water and sanitation in developing countries? c. Can you provide a reason why public expenditures in sanitation (and health care, more generally) may lead to increases in long-run productivity? 1. In his Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, first published in 1789, Thomas Malthus wrote: This natural inequality of the two powers of population and of production in the earth . . . [forms] the great difficulty that to me appears insurmountable in the way to perfectibility of society. All other arguments are of slight and subordinate consideration in comparison of this. I see no way by which man can escape from the weight of this law which pervades all animated nature. No fancied equality, no agrarian revolutions in their utmost extent, could remove the pressure of it even for a single century. Discuss Malthus’s “insurmountable difficulty” in view of the events of the past 100 years. 2. To what extent does the vicious circle of poverty apply to poor families that are living in the richest developed countries? Consider carefully, for example, the similarities and differences facing a poor family living in Vancouver and one living in Ghana, where per capita income is less than $400 per year. Did it apply to Canadian immigrants who arrived at the turn of the twentieth century with $10 in their pockets? 3. Would removing all restrictions on immigration into the advanced countries help to improve living standards in the developing nations? How might such a policy affect living standards in the advanced countries? 4. “High coffee prices bring hope to impoverished Latin American peasants,” reads the headline. Mexico, Kenya, and Burundi, among other developing countries, have the right combination of soil and climate to increase their coffee production greatly. Discuss the benefits and risks to them if they pursue coffee production as a major avenue of their development. 5. History has shown that rapid development of poor countries is often accompanied by some measure of devastation of the country’s natural resources. Can you provide some examples? Must this outcome always occur? How can the developed countries help to stem the devastation? Why don’t they help more than they do at present?Challenges Facing the Developing Countries In the comfortable urban life of today’s developed countries, most people have lost sight of the fact that a short time ago—very short in terms of the life span of the earth—people were nomadic food gatherers, garnering an existence as best they could from what nature threw their way. It has been only about 10 000 years since the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, when people changed from food gatherers to food producers. Throughout most of subsequent human history, civilizations have been based on a comfortable life for a privileged minority and unremitting toil for the vast majority. Only within the past two centuries have ordinary people become able to expect leisure and high consumption standards, and then only in the world’s economically developed countries. In this web-based chapter we review some of the challenges faced by the world’s developing countries—those countries that have not yet been fortunate enough to achieve the living standards that we, in Canada, all too often take for granted. 36W.1 The Uneven Pattern of Development Over 6 billion people are alive today, but the wealthy parts of the world contain no more than 20 percent of the world’s population. Many of the rest struggle for subsistence. Many exist on a level at or below that endured by peasants in ancient Egypt or Babylon. The richest countries with the highest per capita incomes are referred to by the United Nations as developed countries. These include the United States, Canada, most of the countries of Western Europe, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and a few others. The poorer states are referred to by the UN as the developing countries and include a diverse set of nations. Some, such as Vietnam, Argentina, and China, are growing very rapidly, while others, such as Haiti, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone are actually experiencing negative growth rates of real per capita income. Between these two is another group of nations, called the newly industrialized countries (NICs). They include South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. These countries grew rapidly in the developed countries The higher-income countries of the world, including the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and South Africa. developing countries The lower-income countries of the world, most of which are in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. newly industrialized countries (NICs) Countries that have industrialized and grown rapidly over the past 40 years. Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 1 four decades after 1960 and typically have per capita incomes close to 50 percent of those found in the developed nations. Several other countries in Southeast Asia are close behind the NICs. These include Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. Viewing the problem of raising per capita income in a poorer country as one of economic development recognizes that the whole structure of its economy often needs to be altered to create economic growth. This is a complex task; many countries remain undeveloped today despite decades of effort by their governments (often assisted with aid from developed countries) to get them on a path of sustained growth. Data on per capita incomes throughout the world (as shown in Table 1) cannot be accurate down to the last $100 because there are many problems in comparing national incomes across countries. For example, homegrown food is vitally important to living standards in developing countries, but it is excluded from or at best imperfectly included in the national income statistics of most countries. Nevertheless, the data reflect enormous real differences in living standards that no statistical inaccuracies can hide. The development gap—the discrepancy between the standards of living in countries at either end of the distribution—is real and large. Figure 1 provides another way of looking at inequality. It shows the geographical distribution of per capita income. The map reveals why modern political discussions of global income distribution often use the labels North and South to refer to the rich and the poor nations, respectively. The consequences of low income levels can be severe. In rich countries like Canada and the United States, variations in rainfall are reflected in farm output and farm income. In poor countries, variations in rainfall are often reflected in the death rate. In these countries, many people live so close to a subsistence level that slight fluctuations in the food supply bring death by starvation to large numbers. Other, less dramatic characteristics of poverty include inadequate diet, poor health, short life expectancy, and illiteracy. For these reasons, reformers in developing countries feel a sense of urgency not felt by their counterparts in rich countries. Yet, as Table 2 shows, some of the poorest countries in the world are among those with very low or negative growth rates of per capita GDP, with the following consequence: The development gap has been widening for the very poorest countries. 2 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries TABLE 1 Income and Population Differences Among Groups of Countries, 2000 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) GNP Per Capita Number of GNP Population GNP Per Capita Percentage Percentage of (US$) Countries (US$ billions) (millions) (US$) of World Population World GNP Less than $755 63 997 2 460 410 40.6 3.2 $756 to $2995 54 2 324 2 048 1 130 33.8 7.4 $2996 to $9265 38 3 001 647 4 640 10.7 9.6 $9266 or more 52 24 994 903 27 690 14.9 79.8 World 207 31 315 6 057 100.0 100.0 There is considerable inequality in the distribution of world income. The unequal distribution of world income is shown in columns 5 and 6. The poorest three-quarters of the world’s population earns just over 10 percent of world income. The richest 15 percent earns almost 80 percent of world income. (Source: World Bank Atlas, 2002. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.) The North–South Institute is a Canadian research institute that focuses on economic development. See its website: www.nsi-ins.ca. Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 2 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 3 FIGURE 1 Countries of the World, Classified by Per Capita GNP, 2000 Income group U.S. dollars Low $755 or less Lower-middle $756 – $2995 Upper-middle $2996–$9265 High $9266 or more There is a sharp geographical division between “North” and “South” in the level of income per capita. The nations of the world are classified here according to four levels of measured per capita GNP, as shown in Table 1. The poorest group, shown in brown, represents 40 percent of the world’s population and just over 3 percent of world GNP. The wealthiest group, shown in orange, includes North America, Europe, Japan, and Australia and represents 15 percent of the world’s population and almost 80 percent of world GNP. TABLE 2 The Relationship Between the Level and the Growth Rate of Per Capita Income, 1990–2000 Growth of GNP GNP Population GNP Per Capita Per Capita, 1990–1996 Number of (US$ billion) (millions) (US$) (% per year) Countries 2000 2000 2000 Less than 0 53 943 752 1 250 0 to 0.9 17 496 166 2 980 1.0 to 1.9 41 12 578 1 122 11 210 2.0 to 2.9 31 13 550 975 13 890 3.0 or more 36 3 618 2 933 1 230 The very poorest countries spend much of their increase in income on a rising population. Hence, their increase in income per capita is less than half that of the countries that are already richer. The gap in income between rich and many of the very poor countries is not closing. (Source: World Bank Atlas, 2002. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.) Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 3 As we shall see, this is a problem of both output and population. It is also an international political problem. What are the causes of underdevelopment, and how may they be overcome? 36W.2 Impediments to Economic Development Per capita income grows when aggregate income grows faster than population. Many forces can impede such growth. Here we examine a number of possible impediments. Resources A country’s supply of natural resources is important. A country with infertile land and inadequate supplies of natural resources will find income growth more difficult to achieve than one that is richly endowed with such resources. How these resources are managed also matters. When farmland is divided into many small parcels, it may be much more difficult to achieve the advantages of modern agricultural techniques than when the land is available in huge tracts for large-scale farming. Fragmented land holdings may result from a dowry or inheritance system or may be politically imposed. One of the populist policies following the Mexican Revolution early in the twentieth century was the redistribution of land from large landowners to ordinary peasants. Today, however, fragmented land ownership prevents Mexican agriculture from producing at costs low enough to compete in international markets. The Mexican government now faces an agonizing choice between allowing its populist land reforms to be reversed or continuing to protect a large agricultural sector whose inefficiency is increasing relative to competing suppliers. Although abundant supplies of natural resources can assist growth, they are neither sufficient to ensure growth nor necessary for it. Some countries with large supplies of natural resources have poor growth performance because the economic structure encourages waste. Prime examples are the former Soviet Union, Argentina before the 1990s, and Uganda. In contrast, other countries have enjoyed rapid rates of economic growth based on human capital and entrepreneurial ability despite a dearth of natural resources. Prime examples are Switzerland in earlier centuries, Japan over the past 100 years (until its significant current economic malaise, beginning in the early 1990s), and Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan since the end of the Second World War. Inefficiency When we discuss inefficiency in resource use, it helps to distinguish between two kinds of economic inefficiency, which are studied in microeconomics. Allocative inefficiency occurs when factors of production are used to make an inefficient combination of goods. There are too many of some goods and too few of others, and thus the society is at the wrong point on its production possibilities boundary. If resources are reallocated to produce less of some and more of other types of goods, some people can be made better off while no one is made worse off. 4 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 4 Productive inefficiency occurs when factors of production are used in inefficient combinations. Given the prices of capital and labour, some production processes use too much capital relative to labour, while others use too little. Productive inefficiency implies that the society is inside its production possibilities boundary. If factor combinations are altered, more of all goods can be produced. Monopolistic market structures, as well as taxes, tariffs, and subsidies, are some important sources of the distortions that lead to both allocative and productive inefficiencies. A third kind of inefficiency, called X-inefficiency, occurs either when firms do not seek to maximize their profits or when owners of the factors of production do not seek to maximize their well-being. Like allocative and productive inefficiency, X-inefficiency also puts the economy inside its production possibilities boundary. Professor Harvey Liebenstein of the University of California, the economist who developed the concept, has studied X-inefficiency in developing countries. He cites psychological evidence to show that non-maximizing behaviour is typical of situations in which the pressure that has been placed on decision makers is either very low or very high. According to this evidence, if the customary living standard can be obtained with little effort, people are likely to follow customary behaviour and spend little time trying to make optimal decisions that would improve their well-being. When pressure builds up, so that making a reasonable income becomes more difficult, optimizing behaviour becomes more common. Under extreme pressure, however, such as very low living standards or a rapidly deteriorating environment, people become disoriented and once again do not adopt optimizing behaviour. Human Capital Numbers of people matter, and so does their training and experience. A well-developed entrepreneurial class, motivated and trained to organize resources for efficient production, is often missing in poor countries. The cause may be that managerial positions are awarded on the basis of family status or political patronage rather than merit, it may be the prevalence of economic or cultural attitudes that do not favour acquisition of wealth by organizing productive activities, or it may simply be an absence of the quantity or quality of education or training that is required. In today’s world, much production is knowledge-intensive, thus putting a premium on a well-educated workforce. The abilities to read, to do basic calculations, to operate electronic equipment, and to follow relatively complex instructions are important requirements for much modern labour. Failure to develop such essential labour skills can be an important cause of lack of growth. Poor health is another source of inadequate human resources. When the labour force is healthy, less working time is lost, and more effective effort is expended. Agriculture A developing country whose labour force is mainly devoted to agriculture has little choice but to accept this basic allocation of resources. It can build up its industrial sector, and if its efforts are successful, the proportion of the population devoted to urban pursuits will rise. But the change will come slowly, leaving a large portion of the country’s resources in rural pursuits for a long time to come. It follows that policies to help the agriculture sector raise productivity are an important part of the development strategy in any agriculture-based poor country. These can Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 5 Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 5 fill the dual purposes of raising incomes of rural workers and reducing the cost of food for urban workers. A developing country’s government may choose to devote a major portion of its resources to stimulating agricultural production, say, by mechanizing farms, irrigating land, using new seeds and fertilizers, and promoting agricultural research and development. Modern developments of new crops and new growing techniques put a premium on agricultural research and development (R&D) so that a country can adopt, and usually adapt, other country’s agricultural innovations. Also, nonfood agricultural and forest products are becoming increasingly important, and R&D expenditures are often needed if these are to become established products. If successful, the country will stave off starvation for its current population, and it may even develop an excess over current needs and thus have a crop available for export. A food surplus can earn foreign exchange to buy needed imports. The gains from this strategy, while large at first, are subject to diminishing returns. Further gains in agricultural production have an ever-higher opportunity cost, measured in terms of the resources needed to irrigate land and to mechanize production. Critics of reliance on agricultural output argue that developing economies must start at once to develop other bases for economic growth. Many developing countries (as well as many developed ones) suffer from misguided government intervention in the agriculture sector. In India, for example, the government—motivated by a desire to diversify agricultural production by increasing the number of crops under cultivation—has encouraged crops such as oilseeds and sugarcane, in which India has a comparative disadvantage, and discouraged crops such as rice, wheat, and cotton, in which India has a strong comparative advantage. It has subsidized food prices, thus giving large benefits to the urban population. Population Growth Population growth is one of the central problems of economic development. Some developing countries have population growth rates in excess of their GDP growth rates and therefore have negative growth rates of per capita GDP. Many developing countries have rates of population growth that are nearly as large as their rates of GDP growth. As a result, their standards of living are barely higher than they were 100 years ago. They have made appreciable gains in aggregate income, but most of the gains have been literally eaten up by the increasing population. The critical importance of population growth to living standards was perceived early in the nineteenth century by Thomas Malthus (1766–1834). He asserted two relations concerning rates of increase. First, food production tends to increase in an arithmetic progression (e.g., 100, 103, 106, 109, 112, where the increments in this example are 3 units per period). Second, population tends to increase in a geometric progression (e.g., 100, 103, 106.09, 109.27, 112.55, where the increase in this example is 3 percent per period). Consequently, Malthus argued that under conditions of natural growth, population will always tend to outrun the growth in food supply. The difference in our example may not seem like much after only five periods. But after 20 periods, the arithmetic progression in food supply has increased it to 160, whereas the geometric progression in the population has increased it to 181. Malthus’s prediction helped to earn economics the label “the dismal science.” And, in some poor areas of the world, the predictions ring all too true, even today. Where agricultural methods are fairly traditional so that food production increases only slowly, population tends to increase at more rapid rates. The result is subsistence living, with population held in check by low life expectancies and periodic famines. 6 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 6 Fortunately, over most of the world, Malthus’s predictions have been proven false. Two reasons are paramount. First, Malthus underestimated the importance of technological change, which has increased agricultural productivity at a geometric rate in many countries, a rate far higher than the rate at which the demand for food has been growing in most advanced countries. Second, he underestimated the extent of voluntary restrictions of population growth due both to the widespread use of birth control techniques and other changes in behaviour such as delayed marriages. As a result, population has grown more slowly than has the production of food (and most other things) in developed countries. In these places, living standards have been rising rather than falling. For the developed countries, Malthusian pressures are not a problem today. For many poor countries, where people subsist on what they grow for themselves, the tendency for the growth in population to outstrip the growth in the food supply makes Malthusian pressures a current threat. Figure 2 illustrates actual and projected world population. By now, the population problem is almost completely limited to developing countries. About 97 percent of the expected growth in the world’s population between now and 2050 will be in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 7 FIGURE 2 World Population Since 1 A.D. 1 billion 200 million 2 billion 11.6 billion∗ Year 2050 10.0 billion∗ Year 2025 8.5 billion∗ Year 2000 6 billion ∗ Projection A.D. 1 1800 1950 2000 2150 2050 World population was just over 6 billion in 2000 and is projected to rise to 10 billion within 50 years. The population of industrialized countries has nearly stabilized. But, in developing countries, population is skyrocketing. Up to 97 percent of population growth between now and 2050 will occur in developing countries. By that time, total world population will have reached 10 billion. Birth and death rates among present populations allow estimates to be made up to about the middle of the next century with reasonable accuracy. The projection to 11.6 billion by 2150 is much more conjectural and highly uncertain. (Source: United Nations Population Fund.) For a lot of good data about developing countries, see the UN’s website: www.un.org. Click on “Economic and Social Development.” Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 7 Cultural Barriers Traditions and habitual ways of doing business vary among societies, and not all are equally conducive to economic growth. In developing countries, cultural forces are often a source of inefficiency. Sometimes personal considerations of family, past favours, or traditional friendship or enmity are more important than market incentives in motivating behaviour. In a traditional society in which children are expected to stay in their parents’ occupations, it is more difficult for the labour force to change its characteristics and to adapt to the requirements of growth than in a society in which upward mobility is a goal itself. The fact that existing social, religious, or legal patterns may make growth more difficult does not imply that they are undesirable. Instead, it suggests that the benefits of these patterns must be weighed against the costs, of which the limitation on growth is one. When people derive satisfaction from a religion whose beliefs inhibit growth or when they value a society in which every household owns its own land and is more nearly selfsufficient than in another society, they may be quite willing to pay a price in terms of forgone growth opportunities. Many critics argue that development plans, particularly when imposed by economists coming from developed countries, pay too little attention to local cultural and religious values. Even when they are successful by the test of increasing GDP, such success may be at too great a cost in terms of social upheaval for the current generation. A country that wants development must accept some alteration in traditional ways of doing things. However, a tradeoff between speed of development and amount of social upheaval can be made. The critics argue that such a tradeoff should be made by local governments and should not be imposed by outsiders who understand little of local customs and beliefs. An even more unfavourable possibility is that the social upheaval will occur without achieving even the expected benefits of GDP growth. If the development policy does not take local values into account, the local population may not respond as predicted by Western economic theories. In this case, the results of the development effort may be disappointingly small. Domestic Saving Although modern development strategies call in many instances for a large infusion of imported foreign capital, the rise of domestically owned firms, which will reap some of the externalities created by foreign technology, is one key to sustained development. This requires a supply of domestic saving to finance their growth. If more domestic capital is to be created at home by a country’s own efforts, resources must be diverted from the production of goods for current consumption. This reallocation of resources implies a reduction in current living standards. If living standards are already at or near the subsistence level, such a diversion will be difficult. At best, it will be possible to reallocate only a small proportion of resources to the production of capital goods. Such a situation is often described as the vicious circle of poverty: Because a country has little capital per head, it is poor; because it is poor, it can devote few resources to creating new capital rather than to producing goods for consumption; because little new capital can be produced, capital per head remains low, and the country remains poor. The vicious circle can be made to seem an absolute constraint on growth rates. Of course, it is not; if it were, we would all still be at the level of the early agricultural civ8 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 8 ilizations. The grain of truth in the vicious-circle argument is that some surplus must be available somewhere in the society to allow saving and investment. In a poor society with an even distribution of income, in which nearly everyone is at the subsistence level, saving may be very difficult. But this is not the common experience. Usually there is at least a small middle class that can save and invest if opportunities for the profitable use of funds arise. Infrastructure Key services, called infrastructure, such as transportation and a communications network, are necessary for efficient commerce. Roads, bridges, railways, and harbours are needed to transport people, materials, and finished goods. Phone and postal services, water supply, and sanitation are essential to economic development. The absence of a dependable infrastructure can impose severe barriers to economic development. Many governments feel that money spent on a new steel mill shows more impressive results than money spent on such infrastructure investments as automating the telephone system. Yet private, growth-creating entrepreneurial activity will be discouraged more by the absence of good telephone communications than by the lack of domestically produced steel. Foreign Debt The 1970s and early 1980s witnessed explosive growth in the external debt of many developing nations. Since the mid-1980s, most of these countries have experienced difficulties in making the payments required to service their debt. “Debt rescheduling”— putting off until the future payments that cannot be made today—has been common, and many observers feel that major defaults are inevitable unless ways of forgiving the debt can be found. The trend toward increased debt started when OPEC quadrupled the world price of oil in 1973. Because many developing nations relied on imported oil, their trade balances moved sharply into deficit. At the same time, the OPEC countries developed massive trade surpluses. Commercial banks helped to recycle the deposits of their OPEC customers into loans to the developing nations. These loans financed some necessary adjustments and some worthwhile new investment projects. However, a large part of the funds were used unwisely; wasteful government spending and lavish consumption splurges occurred in many of the borrowing countries. A doubling of energy prices in 1979 led to a further increase in the debt of oilimporting developing nations. The severe world recession that began in 1981 reduced demand for the exports of many of these countries. As a result, they were unable to achieve many benefits from the adjustments and investment expenditures that they had made. Furthermore, sharp increases in real interest rates (caused in part by the widespread fight against inflation) led to increased debt-service payments; as a result, many countries could not make their payments. The lending banks had little choice but to reschedule the debt—essentially lending the developing nations the money to make interest payments while adding to the principal of the existing loans. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) played a central role in arranging these reschedulings by making further loans and concessions conditional Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 9 infrastructure The basic installations and facilities (especially transportation and communications systems) on which the commerce of a community depends. Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 9 on appropriate policies of adjustment and restraint. These conditions were intended to limit wasteful government expenditure and consumption and thus to increase the likelihood that the loans would eventually be repaid. Critics of the IMF’s role argued that much of the restraint resulted in reduced investment and hence that the IMF’s conditions were counterproductive. During the mid-1980s, the world economy recovered, inflation fell, and real interest rates fell. As a result, the developing countries’ export earnings grew, their debtservice obligations stabilized, and the crisis subsided. A sharp fall in the price of oil, which started in late 1985, further eased the problems of the oil-importing nations, but it also created a new debt problem. Throughout the period of rising energy prices in the 1970s, a number of oil-exporting developing nations— including Mexico, Venezuela, and Indonesia—saw in those high prices new opportunities for investment and growth. Based on their high oil revenues, their ability to borrow improved. Their external debt grew, and they were able to avoid many of the adjustments that the oilimporting developing nations had been forced to undertake. When oil prices fell in the 1980s and 1990s, however, these oil exporters found themselves in difficult positions. By the late 1990s, attention had focused on the socalled highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs). Figure 3 shows for 2001 the external debt for the 10 most indebted of the HIPCs. 36W.3 Development Policies The past two decades have seen a remarkable change in the views of appropriate policies for economic development. The views that dominated development policies during the period from 1945 to the early 1980s have given way to a new set of views that reflect the experience of the earlier period. The Older View The dominant approaches toward development strategies from 1945 to the early 1980s were inward-looking and interventionist. The policies were inward-looking in the sense that replacing imports was the primary goal of fostering local industries. These local industries were usually protected with very high tariffs and supported by large subsidies and favourable tax treatment. The exchange rate was almost always pegged, usually at a level that overvalued the currency (that is, the exchange rate was pegged below its free-market value). As we explain in detail in Chapter 35, fixing the exchange rate below its free-market level raises the domestic currency 10 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries FIGURE 3 External Debt in the Highly Indebted Poor Countries, 2001 0 5 10 Billions of U.S. Dollars 15 20 25 Vietnam Tanzania Sudan Nicaragua Kenya Ghana Côte d’Ivoire Congo Cameroon Angola The Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) had external debts equal to $179 billion in 2001. The data shown here are the external debts of the 10 most indebted of the HIPCs, measured in billions of U.S. dollars. (Source: These data are available on the World Bank’s website: www.worldbank.org. Go to “Data and Statistics” and then click on “Data by Topic” and “Debt.” International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.) Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 10 prices of exports and lowers the prices of imports, which leads to an excess demand for foreign exchange. The argument for keeping export prices high was that foreign demand for traditional exports was inelastic so that (as we saw in Chapter 4) raising their prices would raise the amount received by their sellers. The excess demand for foreign exchange caused by the overvaluation of the currency led to a host of import restrictions and exchange controls such as import licences and quotas issued by government officials. Many governments were hostile to foreign investment and made it difficult for multinational firms to locate in their countries. For example, many had local ownership rules requiring that any foreign firm wanting to invest there must set up a subsidiary in which local residents would own at least half of the shares. Much new investment was undertaken by government-owned industries, while subsidization of privately owned local industries was often heavy and indiscriminate. Industrial activity was often controlled, with a licence being required to set up a firm or to purchase supplies of scarce commodities. Much investment was financed by local savings, which were sometimes made voluntarily and sometimes forced by the state. This whole set of measures is often referred to as being inward-looking and based on import substitution. Strictly, import substitution refers to the attempt to build local industries behind protectionist walls to replace imports. Often, however, the term is used more generally to refer to the entire battery of related measures just described. These interventionist measures gave great power to government officials and, not surprisingly, corruption was rife. Bribes were needed to obtain many things, including state subsidies, licences, and quotas. As a result, many resources were allocated to those who had the most political power and were willing to pay the highest bribes, rather than to those who could use the resources most efficiently. Heavy subsidization of private firms and state investment in public firms required much money, and the tax structures of many poor countries could not provide sufficient funds. As a result, such expenditures were often financed by borrowing from the central bank, which, as we explain in Chapters 27 and 28, ultimately leads to inflation. Persistent inflation was a major problem in many of these countries. Inflation was almost always in the double-digit range and quite often soared to several hundred percent per year. Most of the economies in which these policies were employed fell short of full central planning and full state ownership of resources. As a result, there was still some private initiative and some profit seeking through normal market means. But the overall policy thrust was inward-looking and interventionist. The Rise of the New View During the 1980s, four important events contributed to a reappraisal of this development model. First, developing countries that had followed these policies most faithfully had some of the poorest growth records. Second, the GDP growth rates of the more industrialized countries of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union that had followed interventionist approaches to their own growth were visibly falling behind those of the market-based economies. Third, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, and Hong Kong, which had departed from the accepted model by adopting more market-based policies, were prospering and growing rapidly. Fourth, the globalization of the world’s economy led to an understanding that countries could no longer play a full part in world economic growth without a substantial presence of multinational corporations within their boundaries. Given the sizes of developing countries, this meant the presence of foreignowned multinationals. We now discuss each of these four events in more detail. Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 11 Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:46 PM Page 11 Experience of the Developing Countries Highly interventionist economies fared poorly in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Economies as varied as Argentina, Myanmar (then Burma), Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Ghana were all interventionist and all grew slowly, if at all. In Ethiopia, the emperor was overthrown and the new government adopted rigid Soviet-style policies. Attempts to collectivize agriculture led, as they had 50 years previously in the Soviet Union, to widespread famine. Some countries, such as Ghana, Nigeria, and Myanmar, started from relatively strong economic positions when they first gained their independence but later saw their GDPs and living standards shrink. Other countries, such as India and Kenya, sought a middle way between capitalism and socialism. They fared better than their more highly interventionist neighbours, but their development was still disappointingly slow. Experience of the Socialist Countries In the years following the Second World War, many observers were impressed by the apparent success of planned programs of “crash” development, of which the Soviet experience was the most remarkable and the Chinese the most recent. Not surprisingly, therefore, many of the early development policies of the poorer countries sought to copy the planning techniques that appeared to underlie these earlier socialist successes. In recent decades, however, the more developed socialist countries began to discover the limitations of their planning techniques. Highly planned government intervention seems most successful in providing infrastructure and developing basic industries, such as electric power and steel, and in copying technologies developed in more marketoriented economies. However, it is now seen to be much less successful in providing the entrepreneurial activity, risk taking, and adaptivity to change that are key ingredients to sustained economic growth and technological change. The discrediting of the Soviet approach to development was given added emphasis when the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union abandoned their system en masse and took the difficult path of rapidly introducing market economies. Although China, the last major holdout, posted impressive growth figures in the 1990s, two “nonsocialist” reasons are important in explaining its performance. First, over 90 percent of the population is engaged in basically free-market agriculture—because that sector has long been free of the central-planning apparatus that so hampered agriculture in the former Soviet Union. Second, while the state-controlled industries suffer increasing inefficiencies, a major investment boom took place in China’s southeast coastal provinces. Here foreign investment, largely from Japan and the Asian NICs, introduced a rapidly growing and highly efficient industrialized market sector. Experience of the NICs South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore—the so-called Asian Tigers—have turned themselves from relative poverty to relatively high income in the course of less than 40 years. During the early stages of their development, they used import restrictions to build up local industries and to develop labour forces with the requisite skills and experiences. In the 1950s and early 1960s, however, each of the four abandoned many of the interventionist aspects of the older development model. They created market-oriented economies with less direct government intervention than other developing economies, which stuck with the accepted development model. Korea and Singapore did not adopt a laissez faire stance. Instead, both followed quite strong policies that targeted specific areas for development and encouraged those areas with various economic incentives. In contrast, Hong Kong and Taiwan have had somewhat more laissez faire attitudes toward the direction of industrial development. 12 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries See Chapter 36W of www.pearsoned.ca/ragan for a discussion of socialist Cuba’s recent process of economic reform: Archibald Ritter, “Is Cuba’s Economic Reform Process Paralyzed?” Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:47 PM Page 12 After local industries had been established, all four adopted outward-looking, market-based, export-oriented policies. This approach tested the success of various policies to encourage specific industries by their ability to compete in the international marketplace. With industries designed to serve a sheltered home market, it is all too easy to shelter inefficiency more or less indefinitely. With export-oriented policies not based on subsidies, the success of targeted firms and industries is tested in international markets, and unprofitable firms fail. Not far behind the NICs is a second generation of Asian and Latin American countries that have also adopted more market-oriented policies and have seen substantial growth follow. Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Mexico, Chile, and Argentina are examples. Even Vietnam and Laos are liberalizing their economies as communist governments come to accept that a market economy is a necessary condition for sustained economic growth. Globalization At the heart of globalization lies the rapid reduction in transportation costs and the revolution in information and communication technology that has characterized the past two decades. One consequence has been that the internal organization of firms is changing to become less hierarchical and rigid and more decentralized and fluid. Another consequence is that the strategies of transnational corporations (TNCs), which span national borders in their organizational structures, are driving globalization and much of economic development. Because most trade, and much investment, is undertaken by TNCs, no country can develop into an integrated part of today’s world economy without a substantial presence of TNCs within its borders. The importance of TNCs is now recognized, and most aspiring developing countries generally put out a welcome mat for them. Historically, only a few countries, notably Japan and Taiwan, have industrialized without major infusions of foreign direct investment (FDI). Moreover, these cases took place before the globalization of the world’s economy. It is doubtful that many (or any) of today’s poor countries could achieve sustained and rapid growth paths without a substantial amount of FDI brought in by foreign-owned transnationals. Without such FDI, both the transfer of technology and foreign networking would be difficult to achieve. Developing countries have gradually come to accept the advantages of FDI. First, FDI often provides somewhat higher-paying jobs than might otherwise be available to local residents. Second, it provides investment that does not have to be financed by local saving. Third, it provides training in worker and management skills that come from working with large firms linked into the global market. Fourth, it can provide advanced technology that is not easily transferred outside of the firms that are already familiar with its use. The Washington Consensus As a result of these various experiences, a new consensus on development policy emerged in the closing decades of the twentieth century. The revised model calls for a more outward-looking, international trade-oriented, and market-based route to development. It calls for accepting market prices as an instrument for the allocation of resources. This means abandoning both the heavy subsidization and the pervasive regulations that characterized the older approach. But it also calls for a careful use of government policy in providing basic infrastructure, public goods, and dealing with market failures. Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 13 Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:47 PM Page 13 This consensus is often referred to as the “Washington Consensus.” It describes the conditions that are believed to be necessary for a poorer country to get itself on a path of sustained development. These views are accepted by a number of international agencies, including the World Bank, the IMF, and several UN organizations. The main elements of this consensus are as follows: 1. Government should adopt sound fiscal policies that avoid large budget deficits. In particular, persistent structural (or cyclically adjusted) deficits should be avoided. 2. Government should adopt sound monetary policies, with the goal of maintaining low and stable inflation rates. Exchange rates should be determined by market forces rather than being pegged by central banks. 3. The tax base should be broad, and marginal tax rates should be moderate. 4. Markets should be allowed to determine prices and the allocation of resources. Trade liberalization is desirable, and import licensing, with its potential for corruption, should be avoided. 5. Targeted protection for specific industries and a moderate general tariff, say, 10 to 20 percent, may provide a bias toward widening the industrial base of a developing country. But such protection should be for a specified period that is not easily extended. 6. Industrial development should rely to an important extent on local firms and on attracting FDI and subjecting it to a minimum of local restrictions that discriminate between local and foreign firms. (Of course, restrictions will be required for such things as environmental policies, but these should apply to all firms, whether foreignowned or locally owned.) 7. An export orientation (as long as exports do not rely on permanent subsidies) provides competitive incentives for the building of skills and technologies geared to world markets, permits realization of scale economies, and provides access to valuable information flows from buyers and competitors in advanced countries. 8. Education, health (especially for the disadvantaged), and infrastructure investment are desirable forms of public expenditure. Because future demands are hard to predict and subject to rapid change, a balance must be struck between training for specific skills and training for generalized and adaptive abilities. 9. Finally, emphasis needs to be placed on poverty reduction for at least two reasons. First, poverty can exert powerful antigrowth effects. People in poverty will not develop the skills to provide an attractive labour force, and they may not even respond to incentives when these are provided. Malnutrition in early childhood can affect a person’s capacities for life. Second, although economic growth tends to reduce the incidence of poverty, it does not eliminate it. Debate Beyond the Washington Consensus The basic Washington Consensus on outward-looking, market-oriented economic policies provides what many people believe are necessary conditions for a country to achieve a sustained growth path in today’s world. 14 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries Visit the World Bank’s website at: www.worldbank.org. Visit the IMF’s website at: www.imf.org. Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:47 PM Page 14 Sufficient or Just Necessary? There is substantial debate around one crucial issue: Are the conditions of the Washington Consensus sufficient to encourage the kinds and volumes of both domestic and foreign investment needed to develop comparative advantages in higher-value-added industries, or are they merely necessary? Some observers believe that these conditions are sufficient. In their view, all a country needs to do is to meet these conditions. Domestic saving will finance domestic investments, FDI will flow in, and a sustained growth path will be established. Other economists worry that many countries may have only limited ability to attract FDI, to benefit from it, and to create sufficient domestic investment, even after fulfilling the conditions of the Washington Consensus. The latter set of economists points to the experience of some African countries where TNCs operated extractive industries that despoiled the countryside and produced little permanent benefit for the host country; they merely extracted the available resources and then left. Others point out that there is a major difference between pure extractive enterprises and manufacturing enterprises, the latter having more potential spillovers to the local economy than the former. What does happen after the conditions of the Consensus are fulfilled will depend in part on the existing endowments of the country in question. If large supplies of natural resources or cheap, well-educated labour are available, fulfilling these conditions may be sufficient. Commentators who call for policies beyond those of the Washington Consensus argue that for some countries, a past history of nongrowth, plus the absence of positive externalities that go with a reasonably developed industrial sector, may require that the government adopt a more active set of integrated trade, technology-transfer, and innovation policies. This set of policies would be aimed at encouraging the development of human and technological capabilities. Implications of Modern Growth Theory What is at issue in the debate just described is related to the newer views on economic growth that are discussed in Chapter 26. The key new view is that endogenous technological innovation is the mainspring of economic growth. Things emphasized by economists for centuries, such as aggregate saving and investment, are still essential, but technological change is now considered to lie at the core of the growth process. As we saw in Chapter 26, technological change is a costly process that is undertaken mainly by firms in pursuit of profit. Research and development are by their nature risky and uncertain activities. The technological path followed by firms and industries is evolutionary in the sense that it develops as experiments and errors are made. For developing countries, one of the most important of the many new insights stemming from research into the growth process is that adopting someone else’s technology is often not a simple, costless task. Substantial R&D capacity is needed to adapt other people’s technology to one’s own purposes and to learn how to use it—except where the technology uses only very simple machines that can be operated by unskilled labour. For one reason, much of the knowledge required to use a technology is tacit; it can be obtained only from learning by doing and by using. This creates difficulties in imitating the knowledge, as well as uncertainty regarding which modifications will work in any new situation. It is true even when technology moves from one firm to another in the same industry and the same country. The problems are greater when technology moves across industrial or national borders. The difficulties of adopting new technologies also become more difficult the more complex and information-intensive the technology becomes. Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 15 See Chapter 36W of www.pearsoned.ca/ragan for an interview with Harvard’s Jeffrey Sachs on why the policies suggested by the Washington Consensus were not sufficient to deal with the Asian Crisis of 1997–98. Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:47 PM Page 15 It follows that all knowledge is not freely tradable. Neither a firm nor a government can go out and buy it ready-to-use. Acquiring working technological knowledge requires both investment and the experience that allows workers and management slowly to acquire the needed tacit knowledge. What May Be Needed The foregoing view of technological change suggests to some economists a major reason why active government policies that go beyond the Washington Consensus may be needed.Protection of the Domestic Market. Such policies can work at the early stages by establishing a protected domestic market through tariffs and other import restrictions. Virtually every country that has moved to a sustained growth path in the past, including the United States, Canada, Japan, and all of the NICs, has used import substitution in its early stages of industrialization. A protected home market provides a possible solution to the problem of coping with the enormous externalities involved in building up an infrastructure of physical and human capital as well as the required tacit knowledge and abilities. Even if all the specific young industries that are protected by the import substitution policy do not grow into selfsufficient mature industries, the externalities may still be created and become available for a second generation of more profitable firms. Protection of the home market from international competition can, however, pose serious problems unless it is selective and temporary. Investment may occur mainly in areas where comparative advantage never grows. High costs of protected industries may create a lack of competitiveness in other domestic industries whose inputs are the outputs of the protected industries. Some potential comparative advantages may not be exploited because of the distorting effects of existing tariffs, and—as always—consumers bear much of the cost in terms of high prices of protected outputs. Innovation Policies. Trade restrictions do not provide the only route to building industrial and R&D capacity by encouraging technological diffusion and creating structural competitiveness. Other methods include the much-needed public investment in infrastructure and in human capital and many other things such as the provision of adequate financial schemes to favour investment in physical and intangible assets, procurement and tax incentives, provision of technical and marketing information, consulting services for assisting firms in industrial restructuring and in the adoption of new technologies and organizational techniques, support services in design, quality assurance and standards, schemes for training and retraining personnel, and facilities for start-up companies. Advocates of such a policy package stress the importance of having these incentives as part of a more general innovation and competition policy in order to encourage technological transfer to the local economy (such transfers are riddled with market failures arising from their externalities). Linkages among firms, and among firms and universities and research institutions, both within the country and with the rest of the world, are also important. Policies that encourage the development of small- and medium-size enterprises are important to any development strategy. These tend to be locally owned and tend to be the vehicle by which know-how and best practices are transferred from TNCs to the local economy. They are also the sector most vulnerable to excessive red tape, rules and regulations, profit taxes, and other interferences that raise the cost of doing business. A Cautionary Note. There is no doubt that the governments of many poor countries have been highly interventionist—and some still are. Hence, a good first strategy is often 16 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:47 PM Page 16 to diminish the government’s place in the economy. There is no point in adopting a new, relatively rational technology-promotion strategy if existing government interventions are irrational and heavy. The unproductive interventions must be cleared away first. This does not mean, however, that if a government were starting from scratch, the best objective would be to minimize its place in the economy. Whatever methods are chosen, selective intervention is a delicate instrument, highly dangerous in inept hands; in fact, even when in practised hands, much damage can be done. The intervention needs to be carefully tailored to get specific results and to reduce the opportunities for small groups to gain at the expense of others. To meet these objectives, most assistance should, as a rule, be terminated after specified periods of time. It is also important to leave room for the market to generate, and support, unforeseen opportunities. Conclusion According to the World Bank, approximately 1.2 billion of the world’s people subsist on less than one dollar (U.S.) per day. Despite the fact that one U.S. dollar buys much more in Addis Ababa than it does in New York, Toronto, or Paris, there is still a significant fraction of the world’s population that is—by any reasonable standard—very poor. What can be done? The World Bank’s prescriptions fall into two broad categories: 1. Create new economic opportunities for the poor. Because the poor’s main source of income is what they are paid for their labour, this means promoting labourintensive economic growth. 2. Equip the poor to grasp these opportunities. This step calls for adequate provision of basic social services such as primary education, health, and family planning. The World Bank also points out that one of the most damaging economic distortions in many developing countries is excessive taxation of farming. This hits the very part of the economy on which most of the poor depend for their livelihood. The World Bank suggests that a major reduction in poverty is possible worldwide. What is needed is the acceptance of the new consensus on the importance of market determination and of reducing state control and state ownership of business activity. This, in addition to a large dose of enlightened policies to bring education, health, and jobs to ordinary people and improved technology to the nations’ firms, could pay enormous dividends in reducing poverty and suffering. Only time will tell how much of that hopeful potential will be realized over the coming years. Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 17 SUMMARY 36W.1 The Uneven Pattern of Development L1 • About one-quarter of the world’s population still exists at a level of bare subsistence, and nearly three-quarters are poor by Canadian standards. Although some poorer societies have grown rapidly, the gap between the very richest and very poorest appears to be increasing. Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:47 PM Page 17 18 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 36W.2 Impediments to Economic Development L2 • Impediments to economic development include excessive population growth; resource limitations; inefficient use of resources; inadequate infrastructure; insufficient domestic saving; high foreign debt; excessive government intervention; and institutional and cultural patterns that make economic growth difficult. 36W.3 Development Policies L34 • The older model for development policies included: heavy tariff barriers and a hostility to foreign direct investment (FDI) to protect the home market for local firms; many government controls over, and subsidization of, local activities; and exchange rates pegged at excessively low values (overvalued currencies) with imports regulated by licences. • The new view is given in the Washington Consensus, which calls for: sound fiscal and monetary policies; broadbased taxes levied at moderate rates; market determination of prices and quantities; discriminating use of infant industry protection for moderate time periods; an acceptance of FDI and the presence of TNCs; active government provision of education, health care, and infrastructure; and antipoverty programs to help in human resource development and to aid citizens who are left behind by the growth process. • An active debate turns on whether the conditions of the Washington Consensus are sufficient, or just necessary, to establish a country on a sustained growth path. Analysts who regard it as sufficient feel that once unleashed, natural market forces will create sustained growth. • Analysts who regard the conditions of the Washington Consensus as necessary but not sufficient point to substantial externalities and pervasive market failures in the diffusion of technological knowledge from developed to developing nations. These economists call for active government innovation policies to augment investment and to assist the transfer of technological know-how and practice to the local economy. The development gap Impediments to economic development The vicious circle of poverty The NICs TNCs and FDI The Washington Consensus Externalities and market failures in the diffusion of technology KEY CONCEPTS STUDY EXERCISES 1. Go to the website for the United Nations (www.un.org). From the home page go to “Economic and Social Development.” Then click on “Statistics” and search for “Social Indicators.” Then answer the following questions. a. List the average rate of population growth for: Albania Canada Iceland Angola Czech Republic India Bangladesh Guatemala Rwanda b. Explain why, ceteris paribus, high rates of population growth make it more difficult for a country to increase its average living standards. What role in your answer is played by the diminishing marginal returns to labour? 2. Go to the website for the United Nations (www.un.org). From the home page go to “Economic and Social Development.” Then click on “Statistics” and search for “Social Indicators.” Then answer the following questions. a. List the level of per capita GDP (US$) for the same group of countries as in Question 1, part (a). b. Which country listed by the U.N. has the highest per capita GDP? Chapter36W 3/24/04 1:47 PM Page 18 Chapter 36W challenges facing the developing countries 19 c. Which country listed by the U.N. has the lowest per capita GDP? 3. Go to the World Bank’s website (www.worldbank.org). Search for “Data” and then select “Data by Topic.” Choose “Growth in Consumption and Investment” and then answer the following questions. a. List the amounts of gross saving and gross investment (as percentages of GDP) for: Algeria Côte d’Ivoire Malaysia Bolivia Ecuador Nigeria Canada Latvia Tanzania b. On a scale diagram, with the investment rate on the horizontal axis and the saving rate on the vertical axis, plot the data for each of the chosen countries. Do you see any relationship? c. Based on what you have learned (perhaps especially from Chapter 26), explain why high investment rates are typically associated with high growth rates of GDP. d. In this chapter, we argued that some countries face a growth challenge because of their small pool of domestic saving. Based on your diagram from part (a), explain the importance of domestic saving. 4. Go to the World Bank’s website (www.worldbank.org). Search for “Data” and then select “Data by Topic.” Choose “Agricultural Output and Productivity” and then answer the following questions. a. List the agricultural value added per worker for the following countries: Australia Dominican Republic Netherlands Botswana Haiti Niger Chile India Paraguay b. Can you offer some possible explanations for the greater productivity in agriculture in the developed countries? 5. In the text we discussed that an adequate infrastructure is important to economic development. Go to the website for the United Nations (www.un.org). From the home page go to “Economic and Social Development.” Then click on “Statistics” and search for “Social Indicators.” Then answer the following questions. a. List the percentage of the population with access to safe water and to sanitation (both urban and rural populations) for: Afghanistan Norway Bahrain South Africa Colombia Thailand Indonesia b. According to the “Washington Consensus,” should the public or the private sector be providing water and sanitation in developing countries? c. Can you provide a reason why public expenditures in sanitation (and health care, more generally) may lead to increases in long-run productivity? 1. In his Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, first published in 1789, Thomas Malthus wrote: This natural inequality of the two powers of population and of production in the earth . . . [forms] the great difficulty that to me appears insurmountable in the way to perfectibility of society. All other arguments are of slight and subordinate consideration in comparison of this. I see no way by which man can escape from the weight of this law which pervades all animated nature. No fancied equality, no agrarian revolutions in their utmost extent, could remove the pressure of it even for a single century. Discuss Malthus’s “insurmountable difficulty” in view of the events of the past 100 years. 2. To what extent does the vicious circle of poverty apply to poor families that are living in the richest developed countries? Consider carefully, for example, the similarities and differences facing a poor family living in Vancouver and one living in Ghana, where per capita income is less than $400a. List the amounts of gross saving and gross investment (as percentages of GDP) for: Algeria Côte d’Ivoire Malaysia Bolivia Ecuador Nigeria Canada Latvia Tanzania b. On a scale diagram, with the investment rate on the horizontal axis and the saving rate on the vertical axis, plot the data for each of the chosen countries. Do you see any relationship? c. Based on what you have learned (perhaps especially from Chapter 26), explain why high investment rates are typically associated with high growth rates of GDP. d. In this chapter, we argued that some countries face a growth challenge because of their small pool of domestic saving. Based on your diagram from part (a), explain the importance of domestic saving. 4. Go to the World Bank’s website (www.worldbank.org). Search for “Data” and then select “Data by Topic.” Choose “Agricultural Output and Productivity” and then answer the following questions. a. List the agricultural value added per worker for the following countries: Australia Dominican Republic Netherlands Botswana Haiti Niger Chile India Paraguay b. Can you offer some possible explanations for the greater productivity in agriculture in the developed countries? 5. In the text we discussed that an adequate infrastructure is important to economic development. Go to the website for the United Nations (www.un.org). From the home page go to “Economic and Social Development.” Then click on “Statistics” and search for “Social Indicators.” Then answer the following questions. a. List the percentage of the population with access to safe water and to sanitation (both urban and rural populations) for: Afghanistan Norway Bahrain South Africa Colombia Thailand Indonesia b. According to the “Washington Consensus,” should the public or the private sector be providing water and sanitation in developing countries? c. Can you provide a reason why public expenditures in sanitation (and health care, more generally) may lead to increases in long-run productivity? 1. In his Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, first published in 1789, Thomas Malthus wrote: This natural inequality of the two powers of population and of production in the earth . . . [forms] the great difficulty that to me appears insurmountable in the way to perfectibility of society. All other arguments are of slight and subordinate consideration in comparison of this. I see no way by which man can escape from the weight of this law which pervades all animated nature. No fancied equality, no agrarian revolutions in their utmost extent, could remove the pressure of it even for a single century. Discuss Malthus’s “insurmountable difficulty” in view of the events of the past 100 years. 2. To what extent does the vicious circle of poverty apply to poor families that are living in the richest developed countries? Consider carefully, for example, the similarities and differences facing a poor family living in Vancouver and one living in Ghana, where per capita income is less than $400 per year. Did it apply to Canadian immigrants who arrived at the turn of the twentieth century with $10 in their pockets? 3. Would removing all restrictions on immigration into the advanced countries help to improve living standards in the developing nations? How might such a policy affect living standards in the advanced countries? 4. “High coffee prices bring hope to impoverished Latin American peasants,” reads the headline. Mexico, Kenya, and Burundi, among other developing countries, have the right combination of soil and climate to increase their coffee production greatly. Discuss the benefits and risks to them if they pursue coffee production as a major avenue of their development. 5. History has shown that rapid development of poor countries is often accompanied by some measure of devastation of the country’s natural resources. Can you provide some examples? Must this outcome always occur? How can the developed countries help to stem the devastation? Why don’t they help more than they do at present?People’s desire to socialize, live life and see their relatives is not abnormal in the face of potential danger to themselves and others, and this desire is unlikely to change. What will happen in future? Nature threats soon and later new species will appear be ready for that.The Spanish flu was more deadly than COVID. Ultimately, the virus mutated so much that it got less deadly. But remnants of this are still with us today and that is why we need to adapt and live with COVID in a way that the public is able to tolerate.For COVID, we have unique challenges. Unlike Ebola and SARS, it can be spread by people who don’t realize they have it. SARS made people too sick so they were unable to walk around infecting everyone and were only infectious while symptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 has a lot of walking well where it infects a lot of people but doesn’t kill enough of them to run out of victims. For most people, it’s so mild that it convinces others they don’t have to take it seriously.How has Omicron changed our approach to this virus?Before Omicron, our vaccines offered good protection against severe disease and infection. While they maintain good protection against severe disease with Omicron, they have mostly lost their mojo against infection.Two doses of either Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines still provide moderately high protection (about 70 per cent) against hospitalization (about 90 per cent with Delta), then up to about 90 per cent after a booster. However, two doses of either vaccine is less effective against symptomatic infection – for AstraZeneca this is very low, and even after a booster, protection wanes.Our results shows mistake shows the system is “overwhelmed.”But the most important thing to remember is this – those who are vaccinated or bolstered are far less likely to get very sick.The main focus for the vaccination program needs to pivot back to preventing serious illness and death. Any additional protection that vaccines can provide against infection is an added bonus.Having a breakthrough infection does not mean the vaccine has failed. If you test positive after being vaccinated or having a booster and have mild symptoms or no symptoms at all, then the vaccine has worked as it prevented you from getting severe disease. The vaccines are flame retardants, not impenetrable firewalls.Is Omicron less severe?Omicron causes cold-type symptoms but that does not mean it will be mild for everyone and some will get seriously ill. Data from South Africa, Denmark, USA and UK suggest if you catch Omicron then you are 30-80 per cent less likely to become seriously ill compared with Delta.A child greets Santa through a plastic shield in a shopping Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa.In South Africa, there was a 70-90 per cent reduction in risk of hospitalization compared with Delta. The majority of the people who are hospitalized are unvaccinated and the elderly. The percentage of cases that were hospitalized was far lower for Omicron than previous waves for all age groups, including children.For the first time, there has been an uncoupling between cases and hospitalizations, meaning that although there was such a steep rise in cases, there were fewer hospitalizations compared with Delta which means a less severe variant. The reason for this is unknown. It may partly be due to high percentage of people having previously being infected (natural immunity provides some protection) as vaccination coverage is only about 40 per cent, and additionally a less virulent variant.Data from other countries also indicates that although Omicron is highly transmissible, it causes milder disease overall. In Denmark, whose excellent surveillance aims to capture and sequence every case, Omicron cases skyrocketed to the point where they are no longer able to capture every case and are monitoring hospitalizations instead. Early indications (in a country with high coverage of Pfizer) suggest 60 per cent fewer Omicron hospitalizations than Delta. However, this is early days and transmission so far predominates in the 20-30 year olds.In the UK, many people have also had prior infection and have had AstraZeneca vaccine like here. There is a 45-80 per cent reduced risk of hospitalizations, but similar to Denmark, infections are mainly in young adults so far.A technician inspects samples during COVID-19 antibody neutralization testing at the African Health Research Institute (AHRI) in Durban, South Africa.What will happen here?
Changes to the virus seem to have made it less severe in an individual, but reduced severity is also due to immunity as a result of vaccination and previous bouts of COVID.Old age is still the biggest risk factor for severe disease. Boosters will help protect the elderly even further. The majority of Australians over 60 years and/or clinically vulnerable should be due boosters about now and in January and need to be prioritised for vaccination.What about everyone else?More than 90 per cent of the age eligible population are double dosed with Pfizer and because they are younger, are at lower risk of severe disease from Omicron, and this includes unvaccinated children.Being an unvaccinated, older adult is the biggest risk for hospitalization. With about 10 per cent of the eligible population unvaccinated and breakthrough infections common – that still remains a large number of people who are susceptible. Over the next 6-8 weeks there will be lots of infections, an increase in hospitalizations and furloughed staff. This will add further stress to healthcare services and needs to be avoided.How do we prevent infections?So, in the absence of any additional interventions, most of us will get infected at some stage whether we are unvaccinated, fully vaccinated or boostered.Some public health measures will be important as this pandemic is a long way from being over. Melbournians set a lockdown world record which will be remembered as one of the most extraordinary periods in our history – a time when people completely withdrew from social life to slow the spread of a dangerous pathogen and denied people access to family, and denied children their social development. What was doable in 2020 and 2021 is no longer palatable for most.To reduce infections now, some public health and safety measures are needed. The appetite for harsh measures, such as lockdowns, is no longer present. The critical issue is how to engage most people to adopt safe behaviors so they feel part of the solution, not strangulated, angered or made mentally unwell in the process.People’s desire to socialize, live life and see their relatives is not abnormal in the face of potential danger to themselves and others, and this desire is unlikely to change. The fact that this was made illegal for so long is something that is very raw and painful for many people.Recalibrating the response to the pandemic is critical and engaging the community essential. No individual measure is perfect. Something so simple as improving ventilation in workplaces, schools and other public places is not a personal imposition, won’t cause civil unrest but will help protect us from COVID and other common respiratory infections for years to come.Vaccination mandates are no longer scientifically sound. We should not have the unrealistic expectation that our current vaccines will prevent every infection, nor that it will be possible to chase every infection.Will this pandemic ever end?COVID has been catastrophic with about 5.5 million already dead and countless others having ongoing symptoms. We live on a planet with so much global inequity that much of Africa is unvaccinated. In our region, health systems are so weak that basic medical care, such as oxygen, is not even available. Elimination is such a long way off when only about 40 per cent of schools have a tap and one billion people live in a slum.So what’s going to happen next?In South Africa, it ripped through the community over a few weeks and now they are at the beginning of the tail end of Omicron. This is in a population with high prior exposure and low vaccination coverage, and a predominantly younger population.Viruses are most dangerous when they are introduced into a population that has never had contact with them before. The more “immunologically naive” people are, the more of them are likely to suffer from bad outcomes. In a population, like ours with high vaccination coverage, infection may achieve something close to herd immunity. This suggests that the next few months could provide us with significant protection against future strains of the virus.A combination of vaccination and prior infection, attenuation of the virus into a less severe version, improved ventilation, availability of rapid testing that is freely available and improvements in treatment could turn this virus into what sceptics wrongly called it at the beginning of the pandemic: a bad cold or flu.Perhaps Omicron is a key turning point in the pandemic. Variants will continue to arise and ongoing surveillance for severe disease is needed. But one thing is certain, unless we do more to improve global inequity, this will continue to go on and on for longer.Let’s hope 2022 brings a new dawn. Let’s the happy new year 2021 brings us peace prosperity and happiness The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019, and attempts to contain it there failed, allowing it to spread across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 23 December 2021, the pandemic had caused more than 277 million cases and 5.37 million deaths, making it one of the deadliest in history.COVID-19 symptoms range from none to deadly. Severe illness is more likely in elderly patients and those with certain underlying medical conditions. COVID-19 is airborne, spread via air contaminated by microscopic virions (viral particles). The risk of infection is highest among people in close proximity, but can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors in poorly ventilated areas. Transmission rarely occurs via contaminated surfaces or fluids. Infected persons are typically contagious for 10 days, often beginning before or without symptomsMutations produced many strains (variants) with varying degrees of infectivity and virulence.COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and widely distributed in various countries since December 2020. Other recommended preventive measures include social distancing, masking, improving ventilation and air filtration, and quarantining those who have been exposed or are symptomatic. Treatments include monoclonal antibodies and symptom control. Governmental interventions include travel restrictions, lockdowns, business restrictions and closures, workplace hazard controls, quarantines, testing systems, and tracing contacts of the infected.
The pandemic triggered severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruption and panic buying. The resultant near-global lockdowns saw an unprecedented pollution decrease. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions intensified. The pandemic raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights.The pandemic is known by several names. It may be referred to as the “coronavirus pandemic despite the existence of other human coronaviruses that have caused epidemics and outbreaks (e.g. SARS)During the initial outbreak in Wuhan, the virus and disease were commonly referred to as “coronavirus”, “Wuhan coronavirus”,the coronavirus outbreak” and the “Wuhan coronavirus outbreak”[13] with the disease sometimes called “Wuhan pneumonia”.[14][15] In January 2020, the WHO recommended 2019-nCoVand 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease as interim names for the virus and disease per 2015 international guidelines against using geographical locations (e.g. Wuhan, China), animal species, or groups of people in disease and virus names in part to prevent social stigma WHO finalized the official names COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 on 11 February 2020]TedrosAdhanom explained: CO for corona, VI for virus, D for disease and 19 for when the outbreak was first identified (31 December 2019 WHO additionally uses “the COVID-19 virus” and “the virus responsible for COVID-19” in public communicationsWHO names variants of concern and variants of interest using Greek letters. The initial practice of naming them according to where the variants were identified (e.g. Delta began as the “Indian variant”) is no longer common.[21] A more systematic naming scheme reflects the variant’s PANGO lineage (e.g., Omicron’s lineage is B.1.1.529) and is used for other variantsSARS-CoV-2 is a newly discovered virus that is closely related to bat coronaviruses pangolin coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV The first known outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in November 2019. Many early cases were linked to people who had visited the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market there, but it is possible that human-to-human transmission began earlierThe scientific consensus is that the virus is most likely of zoonotic origin, from bats or another closely-related mammal Despite this, the subject has generated extensive speculation about alternate origins The origin controversy heightened geopolitical divisions, notably between the United States and ChinaThe earliest known infected person fell ill on 1 December 2019. That individual did not have a connection with the later wet market cluster.[39][40] However, an earlier case may have occurred on 17 November.[41] Two-thirds of the initial case cluster were linked with the market. Molecular clock analysis suggests that the index case is likely to have been infected between mid-October and mid-November 2019Official “case” counts refer to the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19 and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official protocols whether or not they experienced symptomatic disease. Many countries, early on, had official policies to not test those with only mild symptoms.Multiple studies claimed that total infections are considerably greater than reported cases The strongest risk factors for severe illness are obesity, complications of diabetes, anxiety disorders, and the total number of conditionsOn 9 April 2020, preliminary results found that in Gangelt, the centre of a major infection cluster in Germany, 15 percent of a population sample tested positive for antibodies.Screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women in New York City, and blood donors in the Netherlands, found rates of positive antibody tests that indicated more infections than reported.Seroprevalence-based estimates are conservative as some studies show that persons with mild symptoms do not have detectable antibodiesAn analysis in early 2020 of cases by age in China indicated that a relatively low proportion of cases occurred in individuals under 20It was not clear whether this was because young people were less likely to be infected, or less likely to develop symptoms and be tested.A retrospective cohort study in China found that children and adults were just as likely to be infected[Initial estimates of the basic reproduction number (R0) for COVID-19 in January were between 1.4 and 2.5 but a subsequent analysis claimed that it may be about 5.7 (with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.8 to 8.9 R0 can vary across populations/circumstances and is not to be confused with the effective reproduction number (commonly just called R), which takes into account mitigation efforts and immunity coming from vaccines and/or prior infection.As of December 2021, we find that the number of cases has continued to climb; this is due to several factors including new COVID-19 variants. As of 20 December there are 275,099,577 confirmed infected individuals worldwide

Semi-log plot of weekly new cases of COVID-19 in the world and the current top six countries (mean with deaths)
SCIENTIST MADE CONCLUSIONS: DON’T RUSH ON ANYTHINGS WHEN THE TIME IS RIGHT IT WILL HAPPEN .SEE THE GRAPH SCIENTICE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA.


COVID-19 total cases per 100 000 population from selected countries


COVID-19 active cases per 100 000 population from selected countries
SCIENTIST INTEGRITY SEE THE GRAPHGravediggers wearing protection against contamination bury the body of a man suspected of having died of Covid-19 in the cemetery of Vila Alpina, east side of São Paulo, in April 2020.As of 23 December 2021, more than 5.37 million[3] deaths had been attributed to COVID-19. The first confirmed death was in Wuhan on 9 January 2020.[65] These numbers vary by region and over time, influenced by testing volume, healthcare system quality, treatment options, government response,[66] time since the initial outbreak, and population characteristics, such as age, sex, and overall health.[67]Multiple measures are used to quantify mortality.[68] Official death counts typically include people who died after testing positive. Such counts exclude deaths without a test.[69] Conversely, deaths of people who died from underlying conditions following a positive test may be included.[70] Countries such as Belgium include deaths from suspected cases, including those without a test, thereby increasing counts.[71]Official death counts have been claimed to underreport the actual death toll, because excess mortality (the number of deaths in a period compared to a long-term average) data show an increase in deaths that is not explained by COVID-19 deaths alone.[4] Using such data, estimates of the true number of deaths from COVID-19 worldwide have included a range from 9.5 to 18.6 million by The Economist,[4] as well as over 10.3 million by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.[5] Such deaths include deaths due to healthcare capacity constraints and priorities, as well as reluctance to seek care (to avoid possible infection).The time between symptom onset and death ranges from 6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days.[73] Mortality rates increase as a function of age. People at the greatest mortality risk are the elderly and those with underlying conditions.

Semi-log plot of weekly deaths due to COVID-19 in the world and top six current countries (mean with cases).
WITH THE NEW DAY COMES NEW STRENGTH AND NEW THOUGHTS.


COVID-19 deaths per 100 000 population from selected countries
WHO provided two reporting codes for COVID-19: U07.1 when confirmed by laboratory testing and U07.2 for clinically or epidemiological diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is inconclusive or not available. The US did not implement U07.2 for mortality statistics “because laboratory test results are not typically reported on death certificates in the US, while U07.1 is used “If the death certificate reports terms such as ‘probable COVID-19’ or ‘likely COVID-19’
Infection fatality ratio (IFR)The infection fatality ratio (IFR) is the cumulative number of deaths attributed to the disease divided by the cumulative number of infected individuals (including asymptomatic and undiagnosed infections). It is expressed in percentage points (not as a decimal Other studies refer to this metric as the ‘infection fatality risk’In November 2020, a review article in Nature reported estimates of population-weighted IFRs for various countries, excluding deaths in elderly care facilities, and found a median range of 0.24% to 1.49%.IFRs rise as a function of age (from 0.002% at age 10 and 0.01% at age 25, to 0.4% at age 55, 1.4% at age 65, 4.6% at age 75, and 15% at age 85). These rates vary by a factor of ~10,000 across the age groups For comparison the IFR for middle-aged adults is two orders of magnitude more likely than the annualised risk of a fatal automobile accident and far more dangerous than seasonal influenzaIn December 2020, a systematic review and meta-analysis estimated that population-weighted IFR was 0.5% to 1% in some countries (France, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Portugal), 1% to 2% in other countries (Australia, England, Lithuania, and Spain), and about 2.5% in Italy. This study reported that most of the differences reflected corresponding differences in the population’s age structure and the age-specific pattern of infections.Case fatality ratio (CFR)Another metric in assessing death rate is the case fatality ratio (CFR which is the ratio of deaths to diagnoses. This metric can be misleading because of the delay between symptom onset and death and because testing focuses on symptomatic individualsBased on Johns Hopkins University statistics, the global CFR is 1.94 percent (5,379,682 deaths for 277,238,940 cases) as of 23 December 2021 The number varies by region and has generally declined over time.DiseaseSymptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness Common symptoms include headache, loss of smell and taste, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.[90] In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of cases. Of people who show symptoms, 81% develop only mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging) and 5% of patients suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction At least a third of the people who are infected with the virus do not develop noticeable symptoms at any point in time. These asymptomatic carriers tend not to get tested and can spread the disease.[96][97][98][99] Other infected people will develop symptoms later, called “pre-symptomatic”, or have very mild symptoms and can also spread the virus.[99]As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days.
Most people recover from the acute phase of the disease. However, some people – over half of a cohort of home-isolated young adults– continue to experience a range of effects, such as fatigue, for months after recovery, a condition called long COVID; long-term damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the diseaseThe respiratory route of spread of COVID-19, encompassing larger droplets and aerosols.The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route when people inhale droplets and small airborne particles (that form an aerosol) that infected people exhale as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing.Infected people are more likely to transmit COVID-19 when they are physically close. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.Infectivity can occur 1-3 days before the onset of symptoms.[110] Infected persons can spread the disease even if they are pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic Most commonly, the peak viral load in upper respiratory tract samples occurs close to the time of symptom onset and declines after the first week after symptoms begin.[110] Current evidence suggests a duration of viral shedding and the period of infectiousness of up to 10 days following symptom onset for persons with mild to moderate COVID-19, and a up to 20 days for persons with severe COVID-19, including immunocompromisedpersonsInfectious particles range in size from aerosols that remain suspended in the air for long periods of time to larger droplets that remain airborne or fall to the ground. Additionally, COVID-19 research has redefined the traditional understanding of how respiratory viruses are transmitted The largest droplets of respiratory fluid do not travel far, and can be inhaled or land on mucous membranes on the eyes, nose, or mouth to infect.[114] Aerosols are highest in concentration when people are in close proximity, which leads to easier viral transmission when people are physically close but airborne transmission can occur at longer distances, mainly in locations that are poorly ventilated in those conditions small particles can remain suspended in the air for minutes to hoursThe number of people generally infected by one infected person varies as only 10 to 20% of people are responsible for the disease’s spread It often spreads in clusters, where infections can be traced back to an index case or geographical location Often in these instances, superspreading events occur, where many people are infected by one personSARS CoV 2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses.t is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.Viral genetic sequence data can provide critical information about whether viruses separated by time and space are likely to be epidemiologically linked With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. By 12 January 2020, five genomes of SARS CoV 2 had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) and other institutions the number of genomes increased to 42 by 30 January 2020 A phylogenetic analysis of those samples showed they were “highly related with at most seven mutations relative to a common ancestor”, implying that the first human infection occurred in November or December 2019.[126] Examination of the topology of the phylogenetic tree at the start of the pandemic also found high similarities between human isolates As of 21 August 2021, 3,422 SARS CoV 2 genomes, belonging to 19 strains, sampled on all continents except Antarctica were publicly available.Demonstration of a nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 testing
The standard methods of testing for presence of SARS-CoV-2 are nucleic acid tests which detects the presence of viral RNA fragments As these tests detect RNA but not infectious virus, its “ability to determine duration of infectivity of patients is limited The test is typically done on respiratory samples obtained by a nasopharyngeal swab; however, a nasal swab or sputum sample may also be used Results are generally available within hours The WHO has published several testing protocols for the disease.Chest CT scans may be helpful to diagnose COVID-19 in individuals with a high clinical suspicion of infection but are not recommended for routine screening. Bilateral multilobar ground-glass opacities with a peripheral, asymmetric, and posterior distribution are common in early infection Subpleural dominance, crazy paving (lobular septal thickening with variable alveolar filling), and consolidation may appear as the disease progresses Characteristic imaging features on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of people who are symptomatic include asymmetric peripheral ground-glass opacities without pleural effusions.[140]Prevention
: COVID-19 § Prevention, Face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic, and pandemic Without pandemic containment measures – such as social distancing, vaccination, and face masks – pathogens can spread exponentially This graphic shows how early adoption of containment measures tends to protect wider swaths of the population.Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection include getting vaccinated, staying at home, wearing a mask in public, avoiding crowded places, keeping distance from others, ventilating indoor spaces, managing potential exposure durations,washing hands with soap and water often and for at least twenty seconds, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and avoiding touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands.Those diagnosed with COVID-19 or who believe they may be infected are advised by the CDC to stay home except to get medical care, call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider, wear a face mask before entering the healthcare provider’s office and when in any room or vehicle with another person, cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue, regularly wash hands with soap and water and avoid sharing personal household A doctor at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center receiving a COVID-19 vaccinationA COVID 19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV 2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19). Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020 The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID 19.The COVID 19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the severity and death caused by COVID 19.Many countries have implemented phased distribution plans that prioritize those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workersAs of late-December 2021, more than 4.49 billion people had received one or more doses(8+ million in total) in over 197 countries. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was the most widely usedTreatmentFor the first two years of the pandemic no specific, effective treatment or cure was available In 2021, the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) approved the oral antiviral protease inhibitor, Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir plus AIDS drug ritonavir), to treat adult patients.FDA later gave it an EUA.A critically ill patient receiving invasive ventilation in the intensive care unit of the Heart Institute, University of São Paulo. Due to a shortage of mechanical ventilators, a bridge ventilator is being used to automatically actuate a bag valve mask.Most cases of COVID-19 are mild. In these, supportive care includes medication such as paracetamol or NSAIDs to relieve symptoms (fever,body aches, cough), adequate intake of oral fluids and rest Good personal hygiene and a healthy diet are also recommended.Supportive care includes treatment to relieve symptoms, fluid therapy, oxygen support and prone positioning, and medications or devices to support other affected vital organs.[162] More severe cases may need treatment in hospital. In those with low oxygen levels, use of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone is recommended, to reduce mortality.[163] Noninvasive ventilation and, ultimately, admission to an intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation may be required to support breathing.[164] Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to address the issue of respiratory failure.
Existing drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ivermectin and so-called early treatment are not recommended by US or European health authorities Two monoclonal antibody-based therapies are available for early use in high-risk cases.[168] The antiviral remdesivir is available in the US, Canada, Australia, and several other countries, with varying restrictions; however, it is not recommended for use with mechanical ventilation, and is discouraged altogether by the World Health Organization (WHO due to limited evidence of its efficacyWorld Health Organization video describing how variants proliferate in unvaccinated areasSeveral variants have been named by WHO and labeled as a variant of concern (VoC) or a variant of interest (VoI). They share the more infectious D614G mutation Delta dominated and then eliminated earlier VoC from most jurisdictions. Omicron’s immune escape ability may allow it to spread via breakthrough infections, which in turn may allow it to coexist with Delta, which more often infects the unvaccinated
Variants
Name Lineage Detected Countries Priority
Alpha
B.1.1.7
UK 190 VoC
Beta
B.1.351
South Africa 140 VoC
Delta
B.1.617.2
India 170 VoC
Gamma
P.1
Brazil 90 VoC
Lambda
C.37
Peru 30 VoI
Mu
B.1.621
Colombia 57 VoI
Omicron
B.1.1.529
Botswana 77 VoC[174]

The severity of COVID-19 varies. The disease may take a mild course with few or no symptoms, resembling other common upper respiratory diseases such as the common cold. In 3–4% of cases (7.4% for those over age 65) symptoms are severe enough to cause hospitalization.[175] Mild cases typically recover within two weeks, while those with severe or critical diseases may take three to six weeks to recover. Among those who have died, the time from symptom onset to death has ranged from two to eight weeks The Italian IstitutoSuperiore di Sanità reported that the median time between the onset of symptoms and death was twelve days, with seven being hospitalised. However, people transferred to an ICU had a median time of ten days between hospitalisation and death. Prolonged prothrombin time and elevated C-reactive protein levels on admission to the hospital are associated with severe course of COVID-19 and with a transfer to ICU.\StrategiesThe CDC and WHO advise that masks (such as worn here by Taiwanese president Tsai Ing-wen) reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2.Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behavior changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into containment and mitigation. These can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact Moreover, progressively greater increases in healthcare capacity (raising the line) such as by increasing bed count, personnel, and equipment, help to meet increased demand. ContainmentContainment is undertaken to stop an outbreak from spreading into the general population. Infected individuals are isolated while they are infectious. The people they have interacted with are contacted and isolated for long enough to ensure that they are either not infected or no longer contagious. Successful containment or suppression reduces Rt to less than 1Screening is the starting point for containment. Screening is done by checking for symptoms to identify infected individuals, who can then be isolated and/or offered treatmentMitigationShould containment fail, efforts focus on mitigation: measures taken to slow the spread and limit its effects on the healthcare system and society.Successful mitigation delays and decreases the epidemic peak, known as “flattening the epidemic curve”. This decreases the risk of overwhelming health services and provides more time for developing vaccines and treatments. Individual behavior changed in many jurisdictions. Many people worked from home instead of at their traditional workplaces. People chose to homeschool their children.Non-pharmaceutical interventionsNon-pharmaceutical interventions that may reduce spread include personal actions such as hand hygiene, wearing face masks, and self-quarantine; community measures aimed at reducing interpersonal contacts such as closing workplaces and schools and cancelling large gatherings; community engagement to encourage acceptance and participation in such interventions; as well as environmental measures such as surface cleaning.[186] Many such measures were criticised as hygiene theatre. Other measuresMore drastic actions, such as quarantining entire populations and strict travel bans have been attempted in various jurisdictions.[188] China and Australia’s lockdowns have been the most strict. New Zealand implemented the most severe travel restrictions. South Korea introduced mass screening and localised quarantines, and issued alerts on the movements of infected individuals. Singapore provided financial support, quarantined, and imposed large fines for those who broke quarantine. Contact tracing attempts to identify recent contacts of newly-infected individuals, and to screen them for infection. The traditional approach is to request a list of contacts from infectees, and then telephone or visit the contacts.Another approach is to collect location data from mobile devices to identify those who have come in significant contact with infectees, which prompted privacy concerns. On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple announced an initiative for privacy-preserving contact tracing. In Europe and in the US, Palantir Technologies initially provided COVID-19 tracking services.[ WHO described increasing capacity and adapting healthcare as a fundamental mitigation. The ECDC and WHO’s European regional office issued guidelines for hospitals and primary healthcare services for shifting resources at multiple levels, including focusing laboratory services towards testing, cancelling elective procedures, separating and isolating patients, and increasing intensive care capabilities by training personnel and increasing ventilators and beds. The pandemic drove widespread adoption of telehealthImprovised manufacturingDue to capacity supply chains limitations, some manufacturers began 3D printing material such as nasal swabs and ventilator parts. In one example, an Italian startup received legal threats due to alleged patent infringement after reverse-engineering and printing one hundred requested ventilator valves overnight On 23 April 2020, NASA reported building, in 37 days, a ventilator which is undergoing further testing Individuals and groups of makers created and shared open source designs, and manufacturing devices using locally sourced materials, sewing, and 3D printing. Millions of face shields, protective gowns, and masks were made. Other ad hoc medical supplies included shoe covers, surgical caps, powered air-purifying respirators, and hand sanitizer. Novel devices were created such as ear savers, non-invasive ventilation helmets, and ventilator splittersHerd immunity
In July 2021, several experts expressed concern that achieving herd immunity may not be possible because Delta can transmit among vaccinated individuals CDC published data showing that vaccinated people could transmit Delta, something officials believed was less likely with other variants. Consequently, WHO and CDC encouraged vaccinated people to continue with NPIs.Interactive timeline map of confirmed cases per million people
(drag circle to adjust; may not work on mobile devices)The outbreak was discovered in Wuhan in November 2019. It is possible that human-to-human transmission was happening before the discovery.[32][33] Based on a retrospective analysis starting from December 2019, the number of cases in Hubei gradually increased, reaching 60 by 20 December and at least 266 by 31 December.[206]A pneumonia cluster was observed on 26 December and treated by Doctor Zhang Jixian. He informed the Wuhan Jianghan CDC on 27 December.[207] Vision Medicals reported the discovery of a novel coronavirus to the China CDC (CCDC) on 28 December.On 30 December, a test report from CapitalBioMedlab addressed to Wuhan Central Hospital reported an erroneous positive result for SARS, causing doctors there to alert authorities. Eight of those doctors, including Li Wenliang (who was also punished on 3 January were later admonished by the police for spreading false rumours; and Dr. Ai Fen was reprimanded.That evening, Wuhan Municipal Health Commission (WMHC) issued a notice about “the treatment of pneumonia of unknown cause” The next day, WMHC made the announcement public, confirming 27 cases—enough to trigger an investigation.On 31 December, the WHO office in China was informed of cases of the pneumonia cases and immediately launched an investigation.Official Chinese sources claimed that the early cases were mostly linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which also sold live animals However, in May 2020, CCDC director George Gao indicated the market was not the origin (animal samples had tested negative). On 11 January, WHO was notified by the Chinese National Health Commission that the outbreak was associated with exposures in the market, and that China had identified a new type of coronavirus, which it isolated on 7 January.Initially, the number of cases doubled approximately every seven and a half days In early and mid-January, the virus spread to other Chinese provinces, helped by the Chinese New Year migration. Wuhan was a transport hub and major rail interchange.[221] On 10 January, the virus’ genome was shared through GISAID.[222] A retrospective study published in March found that 6,174 people had reported symptoms by 20 January.[223] A 24 January report indicated human transmission, recommended personal protective equipment for health workers, and advocated testing, given the outbreak’s “pandemic potential”. On 31 January the first published modelling study warned of inevitable “independent self-sustaining outbreaks in major cities globally” and called for “large-scale public health interventionsOn 30 January, 7,818 infections had been confirmed, leading WHO to declare the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). On 11 March, WHO elevated it to a pandemic.By 31 January, Italy had its first confirmed infections, in two tourists from China. On 19 March, Italy overtook China as the country with the most reported deaths. By 26 March, the United States had overtaken China and Italy as the country with the highest number of confirmed infections. Genomic analysis indicated that the majority of New York’s confirmed infections came from Europe, rather than directly from Asia Testing of prior samples revealed a person who was infected in France on 27 December 2019 and a person in the United States who died from the disease on 6 February. In October, WHO reported that one in ten people around the world may have been infected, or 780 million people, while only 35 million infections had been confirmed. On 9 November, Pfizer released trial results for a candidate vaccine, showing that 90% effectiveness against severe infection.] That day, Novavax entered an FDA Fast Track application for their vaccine.On 14 December, Public Health England reported that a variant had been discovered in the UK’s southeast, predominantly in Kent. The variant, later named Alpha, showed changes to the spike protein that could be more infectious. As of 13 December, 1,108 infections had been confirmed. CanSino was the first vaccine to be approved, by China on 24 June. Other vaccines were approved later that year, including Sputnik V (Russia), BNT162b2 (US, UK, EU and others), Sinopharm (Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates) and mRNA-1273 (US).

On 2 January, the Alpha variant, first discovered in the UK, had been identified in 33 countries. On 6 January, the Gamma variant was first identified in Japanese travellers returning from BrazilOn 29 January, it was reported that the Novavax vaccine was 49% effective against the Beta variant in a clinical trial in South Africa. The CoronaVac vaccine was reported to be 50.4% effective in a Brazil clinical trial. On 12 March, several countries stopped using the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine due to blood clotting problems, specifically cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) On 20 March, the WHO and European Medicines Agency found no link to thrombus, leading several countries to resume the vaccineIn March WHO reported that an animal host was the most likely origin, without ruling out other possibilitiesThe Delta variant was first identified in India. In mid-April, the variant was first detected in the UK and two months later it had metastasized into a third wave there, forcing the government to delay reopening that was originally scheduled for JuneOn November 10, Germany advised against the Moderna vaccine for people under 30.National reactions ranged from strict lockdowns to public education.WHO recommended that curfews and lockdowns should be short-term measures to reorganise, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect the health care systemAs of 26 March 2020, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown This increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April—more than half the world’s population.As of the end of 2021, Asia’s peak had come at the same time and at the same level as the world as a whole, in May 2021.However, cumulatively they had experienced only half the world average China opted for containment, inflicting strict lockdowns to eliminate spread.As of 14 July 2020, 83,545 cases had been confirmed in China, along with 4,634 deaths and 78,509 recoveries In November 2020 some 1 million people had been vaccinated, according to China’s state council. The vaccines included the BIBP, WIBP, and CoronaVacMultiple sources cast doubt upon the accuracy of China’s official numbers, with some suggesting intentional data suppression.It was reported on 11 December 2021 that China had vaccinated 1.162 billion of its citizens, or 82.5% of the total population of the country against Covid-19Indian officials conducting temperature checks at the RathaYatra Hindu festival on 23 June 2020The first case in India was reported on 30 January 2020. India ordered a nationwide lockdown starting 24 March 2020 with a phased unlock beginning 1 June 2020. Six cities accounted for around half of reported cases—Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Pune and Kolkata.A second wave hit India in April 2021, straining healthcare services.Disinfection of Tehran Metro trains against COVID-19 transmission. Similar measures have also been taken in other countriesIran reported its first confirmed cases on 19 February 2020 in Qom. Early measures included the cancellation of concerts and other cultural events Friday prayers and education shutdowns.[274]Iran became a centre of the pandemic in February 2020 More than ten countries had traced their outbreaks to Iran by 28 February, indicating a more severe outbreak than the 388 reported cases. The Iranian Parliament closed, after 23 of its 290 members tested positive on 3 March 2020.] At least twelve sitting or former Iranian politicians and government officials had died by 17 March 2020. By August 2021, the pandemic’s fifth wave peaked, with more than 400 deaths in 1 day. In Japan, the pandemic was believed to have damaged mental health. According to the report by the country’s National Police Agency, suicides increased to 2,153 in October 2020. Experts stated that the pandemic had worsened mental health issues due to lockdowns and isolation from family members, among other issuesA drive-through test centre at the Gyeongju Public Health CentreCOVID-19 was confirmed in South Korea on 20 January 2020. Military bases were quarantined after tests showed three infected soldiersSouth Korea introduced what was then considered the world’s largest and best-organised screening programme, isolating infected people, and tracing and quarantining contacts Screening methods included mandatory self-reporting by new international arrivals through mobile application,combined with drive-through testing,and increasing testing capability to 20,000 people/day Despite some early criticisms South Korea’s programme was considered a success in controlling the outbreak without quarantining entire cities.The global COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Europe with its first confirmed case in Bordeaux, France, on 24 January 2020, and subsequently spread widely across the continent. By 17 March 2020, every country in Europe had confirmed a case, and all have reported at least one death, with the exception of Vatican City.Italy was the first European nation to experience a major outbreak in early 2020, becoming the first country worldwide to introduce a national lockdownBy 13 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Europe the epicentre of the pandemic and it remained so until the WHO announced it has been overtaken by South America on 22 May By 18 March 2020, more than 250 million people were in lockdown in Europe. Despite deployment of COVID-19 vaccines, Europe became the pandemic’s epicentre once again in late 2021.On 21 August, it was reported the COVID-19 cases were climbing among younger individuals across Europe.[297] On 21 November, it was reported by the Voice of America that Europe is the worst hit area by COVID-19, with numbers exceeding 15 million cases. On 22 November, the WHO indicated that a new surge of the virus in Europe had caused Austria to implement another lockdown, while other countries in the region such as Germany are contemplating a lockdown, due to rising cases, as well. The earliest discovered infection came from an old sample sample collected on 27 December 2019. A superspreader event in the outbreak was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February. It was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom were believed to have contracted the virus. On 13 March, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe ordered the closure of “non-essential” public places, and on 16 March, President Emmanuel Macron announced mandatory home confinement.

Civil Protection volunteers conduct health checks at the Guglielmo Marconi Airport in Bologna on 5 February 2020.The Italian outbreak began on 31 January 2020, when two Chinese tourists tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Rome.]Cases began to rise sharply, which prompted the government to suspend flights to and from China anddeclare a state of emergency. On 22 February 2020, the Council of Ministers announced a new decree-law to contain the outbreak, including quarantining more than 50,000 people in northern Italy. On 4 March the Italian government ordered schools and universities closed as Italy reached a hundred deaths. Sport was suspended completely for at least one month.On 11 March Conte stopped nearly all commercial activity except supermarkets and pharmaciesOn 19 March Italy overtook China as the country with the most COVID-19-related deaths On 19 April the first wave ebbed, as 7-day deaths declined to 433 On 13 October, the Italian government again issued restrictive rules to contain the second wave.On 10 November Italy surpassed 1 million confirmed infections. On 23 November, it was reported that the second wave of the virus had led some hospitals to stop accepting patientsResidents of Valencia, Spain, maintaining social distancing while queueing (20 March 2020)The virus was first confirmed to have spread to Spain on 31 January 2020, when a German tourist tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in La Gomera, Canary Islands.[315] Post-hoc genetic analysis has shown that at least 15 strains of the virus had been imported, and community transmission began by mid-FebruaryOn 29 March, it was announced that, beginning the following day, all non-essential workers were ordered to remain at home for the next 14 days By late March, the Community of Madrid has recorded the most cases and deaths in the country. Medical professionals and those who live in retirement homes have experienced especially high infection rates On 25 March, the official death toll in Spain surpassed that of mainland China.On 2 April, 950 people died of the virus in a 24-hour period—at the time, the most by any country in a single day.[320] On 17 May, the daily death toll announced by the Spanish government fell below 100 for the first time,[321] and 1 June was the first day without deaths by COVID-19.The state of alarm ended on 21 June.However, the number of cases increased again in July in a number of cities including Barcelona, Zaragoza and Madrid, which led to reimposition of some restrictions but no national lockdownAs of September 2021, Spain is one of the countries with the highest percentage of its population vaccinated (76% fully vaccinated and 79% with the first dose), while also being one of the countries more in favor of vaccines against COVID-19 (nearly 94% of its population is already vaccinated or wants to be).]Sweden differed from most other European countries in that it mostly remained open. Per the Swedish Constitution, the Public Health Agency of Sweden has autonomy that prevents political interference and the agency favoured remaining open. The Swedish strategy focused on longer-term measures, based on the assumption that after lockdown the virus would resume spreading, with the same result By the end of June, Sweden no longer had excess mortality. Devolution in the United Kingdom meant that each of its four countries developed its own response. England’s restrictions were shorter-lived than the others. The UK government started enforcing social distancing and quarantine measures on 18 March It was criticised for a perceived lack of intensity in its response. On 16 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson advised against non-essential travel and social contact, praising work from home and avoiding venues such as pubs, restaurants, and theatres.On 20 March, the government ordered all leisure establishments to close,[341] and promised to prevent unemployment On 23 March, Johnson banned gatherings and restricted non-essential travel and outdoor activity. Unlike previous measures, these restrictions were enforceable by police through fines and dispersal of gatherings. Most non-essential businesses were ordered to closeOn 24 April, it was reported that a promising vaccine trial had begun in England; the government pledged more than £50 million towards researchOn 16 April, it was reported that the UK would have first access to the Oxford vaccine, due to a prior contract; should the trial be successful, some 30 million doses would be availableOn 2 December, the UK became the first developed country to approve the Pfizer vaccine; 800,000 doses were immediately available for use On 9 December, MHRA stated that any individual with a significant allergic reaction to a vaccine, such as an anaphylactoid reaction, should not take the Pfizer vaccine. North AmericaMain article: COVID-19 pandemic in North AmericaThe first cases of the COVID-19 pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 in North America were reported in the United States on 23 January 2020. Cases were reported in all North American countries after Saint Kitts and Nevis confirmed a case on 25 March, and in all North American territories after Bonaire confirmed a case on 16 AprilPercentage of the population vaccinated with at least one dose as of November 6, 2021The virus was confirmed to have reached Canada on January 27, 2020, after an individual who had returned to Toronto from Wuhan, Hubei, China, tested positive. The first case of community transmission in Canada was confirmed in British Columbia on March 5. In March 2020, as cases of community transmission were confirmed, all of Canada’s provinces and territories declared states of emergency. Provinces and territories have, to varying degrees, implemented school and daycare closures, prohibitions on gatherings, closures of non-essential businesses and restrictions on entry. Canada severely restricted its border access, barring travellers from all countries with some exceptions. The federal Minister of Health invoked the Quarantine Act, introduced following the 2002–2004 SARS outbreakNear the end of summer 2021, cases began to surge across Canada, notably in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec and Ontario, particularly amongst the unvaccinated population. During this fourth wave of the virus, return to pandemic restrictions such as mask mandates were reinstated in provinces like British Columbia and Alberta Due to the surge in cases largely being a “pandemic of the unvaccinated”, vaccine passports were adopted in all provinces and two of the territories. 51,545,991confirmed cases have been reported in the United States with 812,069deaths, the most of any country, and the nineteenth-highest per capita worldwideAs many infections have gone undetected, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that, as of May 2021, there could be a total 120.2 million infections in the United States, or more than a third of the total population. COVID-19 is the deadliest pandemic in U.S. history;[ it was the third-leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2020, behind heart disease and cancer.From 2019 to 2020, U.S. life expectancy dropped by 3 years for Hispanic Americans, 2.9 years for African Americans, and 1.2 years for white AmericansThese effects have persisted as U.S. deaths due to COVID-19 in 2021 exceeded those in 2020.COVID-19 vaccines became available in December 2020, under emergency use, beginning the national vaccination program, with the first vaccine officially approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on August 23, 2021 Studies have shown them to be highly protective against severe illness, hospitalization, and death. In comparison with fully vaccinated people, the CDC found that those who were not vaccinated were from 5 to nearly 30 times more likely to become either infected or hospitalized. There has nonetheless been some vaccine hesitancy for various reasons, although side effects are rareThe COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached South America on 26 February 2020 when Brazil confirmed a case in São Paulo By 3 April, all countries and territories in South America had recorded at least one caseOn 13 May 2020, it was reported that Latin America and the Caribbean had reported over 400,000 cases of COVID-19 infection with, 23,091 deaths. On 22 May 2020, citing the rapid increase of infections in Brazil, the World Health Organization WHO declared South America the epicentre of the pandemic.
As of 16 July 2021, South America had recorded 34,359,631 confirmed cases and 1,047,229 deaths from COVID-19. Due to a shortage of testing and medical facilities, it is believed that the outbreak is far larger than the official numbers show. President JairBolsonaro created controversy by referring to the virus as a “little flu” and frequently speaking out against preventive measures such as lockdowns and quarantines. His attitude towards the outbreak was likened to that of then US President Trump. Bolsonaro was called the “Trump of the Tropics Bolsonaro later tested positive for the virus.In June 2020, the government of Brazil attempted to conceal active case and death and death counts, ceasing to publish cumulative data.The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Africa on 14 February 2020, with the first confirmed case announced in Egypt. The first confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa was announced in Nigeria at the end of February 2020.[ Within three months, the virus had spread throughout the continent, as Lesotho, the last African sovereign state to have remained free of the virus, reported a case on 13 May 2020 By 26 May, it appeared that most African countries were experiencing community transmission, although testing capacity was limited. Most of the identified imported cases arrived from Europe and the United States rather than from China where the virus originatedIn early June 2021, Africa faced a third wave of COVID infections with cases rising in 14 countries. By 4 July the continent recorded more than 251,000 new Covid cases, a 20% increase from the prior week and a 12% increase from the January peak. More than sixteen African countries, including Malawi and Senegal, recorded an uptick in new cases. The World Health Organization labelled it Africa’s ‘Worst Pandemic Week Ever’.]The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Oceania on 25 January 2020 with the first confirmed case reported in Melbourne, Australia. It has since spread elsewhere in the region,[386] although many small Pacific island nations have thus far avoided the outbreak by closing their international borders. Two Oceania sovereign states (Nauru and Tuvalu) and one dependency (Cook Islands) have yet to report an active case. Australia and New Zealand were praised for their handling of the pandemic in comparison to other Western nations, with New Zealand and each state in Australia wiping out all community transmission of the virus several times even after re-introduction in the community. As a result of the high transmissibility of the Delta variant however, by August 2021, the Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria had conceded defeat in their eradication efforts. In early October 2021, New Zealand also abandoned its elimination strategy. Due to its remoteness and sparse population, Antarctica was the last continent to have confirmed cases of COVID-19 and was one of the last regions of the world affected directly by the pandemic The first cases were reported in December 2020, almost a year after the first cases of COVID-19 were detected in China. At least 36 people are confirmed to have been infected. ResponsesThe pandemic shook the world’s economy, with especially severe economic damage in the United States, Europe, and Latin America A consensus report by American intelligence agencies in April 2021 concluded, “Efforts to contain and manage the virus have reinforced nationalist trends globally, as some states turned inward to protect their citizens and sometimes cast blame on marginalized groups.” COVID-19 inflamed partisanship and polarisation around the world as bitter arguments exploded over how to respond. International trade was disrupted amid the formation of no-entry enclavesThe pandemic led many countries and regions to impose quarantines, entry bans, or other restrictions, either for citizens, recent travellers to affected areas,[ or for all travellers.Travel collapsed worldwide, damaging the travel sector. The effectiveness of travel restrictions was questioned as the virus spread across the world One study found that travel restrictions only modestly affected the initial spread, unless combined with other infection prevention and control measures.Researchers concluded that “travel restrictions are most useful in the early and late phase of an epidemic” and “restrictions of travel from Wuhan unfortunately came too lateThe European Union rejected the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel zoneUkraine evacuates Ukrainian and foreign citizens from Wuhan, China.Several countries repatriated their citizens and diplomatic staff from Wuhan and surroundings, primarily through charter flights. Canada, the United States, Japan, India Sri Lanka, Australia, France, Argentina, Germany, and Thailand were among the first to do so Brazil and New Zealand evacuated their own nationals and others On 14 March, South Africa repatriated 112 South Africans who tested negative, while four who showed symptoms were left behind Pakistan declined to evacuate its citizensOn 15 February, the US announced it would evacuate Americans aboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship and on 21 February, Canada evacuated 129 Canadians from the ship[ In early March, the Indian government began repatriating its citizens from Iran. On 20 March, the United States began to withdraw some troops from Iraq.United NationsainIn June 2020, the Secretary-General of the United Nations launched the UN Comprehensive Response to COVID-19.The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNSC) was criticised for its slow response, especially regarding the UN’s global ceasefire, which aimed to open up humanitarian access to conflict zones.WHOThe WHO spearheaded initiatives such as the COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund to raise money for the pandemic response, the UN COVID-19 Supply Chain Task Force, and the solidarity trial for investigating potential treatment options for the disease. The COVAX program, co-led by the WHO, Gavi, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), aimed to accelerate the development, manufacture, and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, and to guarantee fair and equitable access across the world

.efforts and courage are not enough without purpose and direction. Our efforts should eradicated virus otherwise we are undone.The pandemic and responses to it damaged the global economy. On 27 February, worries about the outbreak crushed US stock indexes, which posted their sharpest falls since 2008.[]Lloyd’s of London estimated that the global insurance industry would face losses of US$204 billion, exceeding the losses from the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season and 11 September attacks, suggesting that the pandemic would become the costliest disaster in human history. Tourism collapsed due to travel restrictions, closing of public places including travel attractions, and advice of governments against travel. Airlines cancelled flights, while British regional airline Flybe collapsed.[423] The cruise line industry was hard hit,[424] and train stations and ferry ports closed.[425] International mail stopped or was delayed.[426]

A socially distanced homeless encampment in San Francisco, California, in May 2020
The retail sector faced reductions in store hours or temporary closures.[427] Retailers in Europe and Latin America faced traffic declines of 40 per cent. North America and Middle East retailers saw a 50–60 per cent drop.[428] Shopping centres faced a 33–43 per cent drop in foot traffic in March compared to February. Mall operators around the world coped by increasing sanitation, installing thermal scanners to check the temperature of shoppers, and cancelling events.[429]
Hundreds of millions of jobs were lost globally.[430][431] including more than 40 million Americans.[432] According to a report by Yelp, about 60% of US businesses that closed will stay shut permanently.[433]
According to a United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America estimate, the pandemic-induced recession could leave 14–22 million more people in extreme poverty in Latin America According to the World Bank, up to 100 million more people globally could fall into extreme poverty due to the shutdowns The International Labour Organization (ILO) reported that the income generated in the first nine months of 2020 from work across the world dropped by 10.7 per cent, or $3.5 trillion.
Supply shortages
The outbreak has been blamed for supply shortages from panic buying (emptying groceries of essentials such as food, toilet paper, and bottled water), and disruption to factory and logistic operations. Shortages were worsened by supply chain disruptions from factory and port shutdowns, and labor shortages.
Panic buying stemmed from perceived threat, perceived scarcity, fear of the unknown, coping behaviour and social psychological factors (e.g. social influence and trust).Shortages continued as managers underestimated the speed of economic recovery after the initial economic crash. The technology industry, in particular, warned of delays from underestimates of semiconductor demand for vehicles and other productsAccording to WHO’s Adhanom, demand for personal protection equipment (PPE) rose one hundredfold, pushing prices up twentyfold PPE stocks were exhausted everywhere.The pandemic disrupted global food supplies. In April 2020, World Food Programme head David Beasley said “we could be facing multiple famines of biblical proportions within a short few monthsBy contrast, petroleum products were in surplus at the beginning of the pandemic, as demand for gasoline and other products collapsed due to reduced commuting and other trips The 2021 global energy crisis was driven by a global surge in demand as the world economy recovered. Energy demand was particularly strong in Asia
Culture

An American Catholic military chaplain prepares for a live-streamed Mass in an empty chapel at Offutt Air Force Base in March 2020.
The performing arts and cultural heritage sectors have been profoundly affected by the pandemic, impacting organisations’ operations as well as individuals—both employed and independent—globally. By March 2020, across the world and to varying degrees, museums, libraries, performance venues, and other cultural institutions had been indefinitely closed with their exhibitions, events and performances cancelled or postponed Some services continued through digital platforms, such as live streaming concerts or web-based arts festivals.[456]
Politics

An Italian government task force meets to discuss COVID-19 in February 2020.
The pandemic affected multiple countries’ political systems, causing suspensions of legislative activities,[457] isolations or deaths of politicians,[458] and rescheduled elections.[459]
Although they developed broad support among epidemiologists, NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) were controversial in many countries. Intellectual opposition came primarily from other fields, along with a few heterodox epidemiologists
On 23 March 2020, United Nations Secretary-General António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres appealed for a global ceasefire;172 UN Member States and Observers signed a non-binding supporting statement in June,[463] and the UN Security Council passed a resolution supporting it in July.
China

The government of China was criticised by multiple countries[466][467][468] for its handling of the pandemic. Multiple provincial-level administrators of the Communist Party of China were dismissed over their handling of quarantine measures. Some commentators claimed this move was intended to protect CCP general secretary Xi Jinping.The US intelligence community claimed that China intentionally under-reported its number of COVID-19 cases.The Chinese government maintained that it acted swiftly and transparently. Journalists and activists in China who reported on the pandemic were detained by authorities,[473][474] including Zhang Zhan, who was arrested and tortured for reporting on the pandemic and the detainment of other independent journalists.
Italy
In early March, the Italian government criticised the EU’s lack of solidarity with COVID-19-affected ItalyOn 22 March, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Russian president Vladimir Putin ordered the Russian army to send military medics, disinfection vehicles, and other medical equipment to Italy.[481][482] In early April, Norway and EU states like Romania and Austria started to offer help by sending medical personnel and disinfectant and Ursula von der Leyen offered an official apology to the country
United States

Several hundred anti-lockdown protesters rallied at the Ohio Statehouse on 20 April 2020.
The outbreak prompted calls for the United States to adopt social policies common in other wealthy countries, including universal health care, universal child care, paid sick leave, and higher levels of funding for public health.[486][487][488] Some political analysts claimed that it contributed to Trump’s loss in the 2020 presidential election.[489][490] Beginning in mid-April 2020, in several US states protests objected to government-imposed business closures and restricted personal movement and association.[491] Simultaneously, protests ensued by essential workers in the form of a general strike.[492] In early October 2020, Trump, his family members, and many other government officials were diagnosed with COVID-19.[493]
Russia sent a cargo plane with medical aid to the United States.[494] Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said “when offering assistance to US colleagues, [Putin] assumes that when US manufacturers of medical equipment and materials gain momentum, they will also be able to reciprocate if necessary.”[495]
Other countries
Rates of imprisoned or detained journalists increased worldwide, with some being related to the pandemic
The planned NATO “Defender 2020” military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states, the largest NATO war exercise since the end of the Cold War, was held on a reduced scale.The Iranian government was heavily affected by the virus, which infected some two dozen parliament members and political figures Iran President Hassan Rouhani wrote a public letter to world leaders asking for help on 14 March 2020, due to a lack of access to international markets.Saudi Arabia, which launched a military intervention in Yemen in March 2015, declared a ceasefireDiplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea worsened.] South Korea criticised Japan’s “ambiguous and passive quarantine efforts” after Japan announced anyone coming from South Korea must quarantine for two weeks. South Korean society was initially polarised on President Moon’s response to the crisis; many Koreans signed petitions calling for Moon’s impeachment or praising his response.Some countries passed emergency legislation. Some commentators expressed concern that it could allow governments to strengthen their grip on power In the Philippines, lawmakers granted president Rodrigo Duterte temporary emergency powers.In Hungary, the parliament voted to allow prime minister ViktorOrbán to rule by decree indefinitely, suspend parliament and elections, and punish those deemed to have spread false information about the government’s handling of the crisis. In countries such as Egypt Turkey,and Thailand, opposition activists and government critics were arrested for allegedly spreading fake news.In India, journalists criticising the government’s response were arrested or issued warnings by police and authorities
Food systems
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted food systems worldwide.[513] COVID-19 hit at a time when hunger or undernourishment was rising, with an estimated 690 million people lacking food security in 2019 The UN estimated at the time that the pandemic would endanger 83–132 million others in 2020.This is mainly due to a lack of food access – driven by falling incomes, lost remittances and, in some cases, a rise in food prices. These issues were complicated by pandemic-caused disruptions to food production.The pandemic and its accompanying lockdowns and travel restrictions prevented movement of food aid. Famines were forecast, which the UN called a crisis “of biblical proportions,”[518] or “hunger pandemic.”[519] It was estimated that without intervention 30 million people may die of hunger, with Oxfam reporting that “12,000 people per day could die from COVID-19 linked hunger” by the end of 2020.[520][518][521] This pandemic, in conjunction with the 2019–2021 locust infestations and several ongoing armed conflicts, is predicted to form the worst series of famines since the Great Chinese Famine, affecting between 10 and 20 per cent of the global population in some way.[522] 55 countries are reported to be at risk.[523] Per the World Health Organization 811 million individuals were undernourished in 2020, “likely related to the fallout of COVID-19”.[524]
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The pandemic impacted educational systems in many countries. Many governments temporarily closed educational institutions, often replaced by online education. Other countries, such as Sweden, kept their schools open. As of September 2020, approximately 1.077 billion learners were affected due to school closures. School closures impacted students, teachers, and families with far-reaching economic and societal consequences. They shed light on social and economic issues, including student debt, digital learning, food insecurity, and homelessness, as well as access to childcare, health care, housing, internet, and disability services. The impact has been more severe for disadvantaged children and their families.The Higher Education Policy Institute conducted a report which discovered that around 63% of students claimed that their mental health had been worsened as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and alongside this 38% demonstrated satisfaction with the accessibility of mental health services. Despite this, the director for policy and advocacy at the institute has explained that it is still unclear as to how and when normality will resume for students regarding their education and living situationHealth The pandemic impacted global health in ways far beyond the disease itself. It reduced hospital visits for other conditions. In the US, hospital visits for heart attack symptoms declined by 38%, compared to 40% in Spain.[527] The head of cardiology at the University of Arizona said, “My worry is some of these people are dying at home because they’re too scared to go to the hospital People with strokes and appendicitis were less likely to seek treatment Medical supply shortages impacted many peopleThe pandemic impacted mental health increasing anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, affecting healthcare workers, patients and quarantined individualsImages from the NASA Earth Observatory show a stark drop in pollution in Wuhan, when comparing NO2 levels in early 2019 (top) and early 2020 (bottom). The pandemic and the reaction to it positively affected the environment and climate as a result of reduced human activity. During the “anthropause”, fossil fuel use decreased, resource consumption declined, and waste disposal was improved, generating less air and water pollution. Specifically, planned air travel and vehicle transportation declined throughout the pandemic. In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a 26% decrease in coal consumption, and a 50% reduction in nitrogen oxides emissions Earth systems scientist Marshall Burke estimated that two months of pollution reduction likely saved the lives of 77,000 Chinese residents.Discrimination and prejudice
Heightened prejudice, xenophobia, and racism have been documented around the world toward people of Chinese and East Asian descent.[537][538][539] Reports from February 2020 (when most confirmed cases were confined to China) documented racist sentiments expressed worldwide about Chinese people ‘deserving’ the virus Chinese people and other Asian peoples in the United Kingdom and United States reported increasing levels of racist abuse and assaults Former US President Donald Trump was criticised for referring to the COVID-19 as the “Chinese Virus” and “Kung Flu”, which others condemned as racist and xenophobic.Age-based discrimination against older adults, while present before the pandemic, increased. This has been attributed to their perceived vulnerability to the virus and subsequent physical and social isolation measures, which, coupled with their reduced social activity, increased dependency on others. Similarly, limited digital literacy left the elderly more vulnerable to the effects of isolation, depression, and loneliness.Lifestyle changesThe pandemic triggered massive changes in behavior, from increased internet commerce to the job market. Online retailers in the US posted 791.70 billion dollars in sales in 2020, an increase of 32.4% from 598.02 billion dollars from the year before Home delivery orders increased, while indoor restaurant dining shut down due to lockdown orders or low sales.Hackers and cybercriminals/scammers took advantage of the changes to launch new attacks.Education in some countries temporarily shifted from physical attendance to video conferencing.]Massive layoffs shrank the airline, travel, hospitality, and other industries.Information disseminationResearch is indexed and searchable in the NIH COVID-19 Portfolio. Some newspaper agencies removed their online paywalls for some or all of their COVID-19-related articles and posts Some scientific publishers made pandemic-related papers available with open access.The share of papers published on preprint servers prior to peer review increased dramatically.Maps played a key role in communicating the spatial distribution of the pandemic. Multiple institutions developed dashboards

Future Environmental Concerns and trees losing their power producing oxygen and human being will suffer their fuel oxygen likes cars.What does the future hold for our planet’s natural environment? Well, no one has a crystal ball to tell us exactly what lies ahead, but we can look at past trends and current data to make future predictions. In this lesson, we will take a look at future environmental concerns, including how the environment could be impacted by the expected population growth, food and energy needs, and pollution as we progress through the 21st century.Population
Let’s start our discussion by looking at the dramatic increase in population that is expected in the 21st century. At the turn of this century, the world population was just under 7 billion people. According to the United Nations, by the year 2075, the population is expected to rocket up to 9.2 billion people.Many of the future environmental concerns that come with a growing population are straightforward. For instance, more people means an increased need for housing as well as increased use of resources, such as water, food, and fuel. Therefore, meeting the basic needs of a growing population means that more land will be converted to living areas, natural resources will be depleted, and greenhouse gas emissions will increase.To complicate matters, much of this growth is expected to take place in developing countries. These countries face many social and economic challenges that make it difficult to address environmental concerns. Many of the citizens of these countries survive through subsistence farming, which is farming that supplies only what is needed for the farmer and his family. Subsistence activities are one of the leading causes of deforestation.Of course, it is not the world’s poor that are entirely at fault. We see that citizens in wealthier countries have higher rates of consumption of goods, use more electricity, and drive more vehicles. In other words, the ecological footprint, which is the measure of the demand for resources required to support a lifestyle, is higher for individuals living in wealthier countries.Food SupplyAnother future environmental concern is how to meet the food supply without compromising the sustainability of the environment. It is easy to see that with the growing population comes a growing need for food. Maintaining the food supply while protecting the environment faces many challenges. To meet the need for more food, more land will be converted to farmland. To complicate this matter, future farmland may be used not only to produce food to feed the world’s population, but also to grow crops for energy. These are called energy crops because they are crops grown to be turned into biofuels.Food supply and agricultural practices also face some uncertainty due to climate changes. Agriculture is highly dependent on consistent climate conditions. While it is not certain how projected climate changes could impact farming in the future, climate changes could make it challenging to grow crops.EnergyHow to meet growing energy needs is also a future environmental concern. Much of the developed world runs on energy obtained from the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. While these energy sources are efficient, they come with an environmental concern. If more fossil fuels are burned for energy, this will lead to the increased release of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases within the atmosphere trap heat and are thought to contribute to global climate changes. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, which means that they do not regenerate after they are depleted.To meet electricity demands of the future, there will be a need to find alternative energy sources, such as solar, wind, and hydropower. While these energy sources do not produce greenhouse gases during their operation, there are greenhouse gases emitted during the construction of these power plants. Also, to provide sufficient energy, these sources may require the use of large areas of land or conversion of previously undisturbed land. For example, the creation of a dam to create hydroelectric power requires the flooding of land upstream of the dam.ou’re searching for answers to the 10 biggest environmental problems and solutions, you might be concerned with the state of the planet today. If you’re worried, I want you to know that although the world faces major environmental problems, there are solutions. The solutions aren’t simple, and there are no magic bullets, but they exist.
There are also a lot of voices and opinions about environmental issues. So along with basic information about environmental problems and solutions, I also offer different perspectives and further reading so you can form your own opinions. Because there are many possible environmental solutions, and not even the “experts” have all the answers. So I encourage you to keep an open mind to every option. Let’s look for progress, not perfection.
I’ll write more about the UN Sustainable Development Goals below but wanted to mention these goals up-front. If you’re reading this article because you’re concerned about the environment (or maybe you’re feeling stressed or anxious about climate change) learn about the Global Goals first. The Global Goals offer a solid framework for solving environmental problems. Now, on to the 10 biggest environmental problems we face today. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
These are the 10 biggest environmental problems in no particular order. Climate change is a hot topic right now so I include it first. It’s also first on the list simply because so many of the problems related to climate change are also connected to other environmental problems. Environmental problems like oil spills, deforestation, and poverty need to be solved in and of themselves. But solving these problems indirectly helps solve the problem of climate change.
There are also environmental problems like fluorinated gases that have a large impact on the climate, but not directly on our health or wealth. These problems are extra tricky because they’re expensive to solve and they get little media coverage. That’s why international laws and cooperation are especially important for solving the hardest problems.
CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change is a long-term change in the average weather patterns that have come to define Earth’s local, regional and global climates.”- NASAClimate change happens when greenhouse gases are released and trapped in the atmosphere, causing the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect creates a layer around the earth’s atmosphere that traps heat from the sun, making our atmosphere warmer, similar to a greenhouse.Image courtesy of NASAThe following greenhouse gases contribute to climate change.Carbon dioxide (CO2) – Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere when fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas are burned. Carbon dioxide is also released when trees and other plants are burned or cut down and through manufacturing cement. Carbon dioxide made up 81% of man-made greenhouse gas emissions from the United States in 2018 according to the Environmental Protection Agency.
• Methane (CH4) – Methane is released from fossil fuels (natural gas in particular), agriculture (cow farts and manure), and landfills. Methane made up 10% of greenhouse gases in the US in 2018.
• Nitrous oxide (N2O) – Nitrous oxide is emitted from agriculture, fossil fuels, industry, and waste-water treatment. Nitrous oxide made up 7% of greenhouse gas emissions in 2018.
• Fluorinated gases – Fluorinated gases are hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and nitrogen trifluoride. They are man-made gases commonly used in refrigerants used for cooling air conditioners and refrigerators. These gases have a high Global Warming Potential and makeup 3% of greenhouse gases emitted in the United States according to the EPA.POVERTYPoverty is indirectly linked to environmental problems. When you solve issues related to poverty you also solve environmental problems such as deforestation1, population growth, gender inequality, and climate change.The world has been making steady progress toward ending extreme poverty for years according to the UN. The COVID-19 crisis has reversed some of the progress. But before the virus, life was better for many people around the world than ever before in history. Now, we need to deal with the crisis and get back to making progress.GENDER INEQUALITYAlthough gender inequality is also not a direct environmental problem, solving problems like inadequate access to birth control, health services, and education has a positive impact on the economy and environment.Education lays a foundation for vibrant lives for girls and women, their families, and their communities. It also is one of the most powerful levers available for avoiding emissions by curbing population growth. Women with more years of education have fewer and healthier children, and actively manage their reproductive health. Gender inequality is indirectly linked to environmental problems.”FLUORINATED GASES USED IN REFRIGERANTSFluorinated gases, like the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) used in refrigerators and air conditioners, are considered major contributors to climate change according to Drawdown.org. The most commonly used refrigerants have a high Global Warming Potential. The Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol offers a timeline for phasing out refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential, but it’s essential for companies and governments to maintain their commitments.To minimize your personal impact, make sure to properly recycle refrigerators and air conditioning units. If you’re not sure how to recycle an appliance contact your local waste management company.Fluorinated gases have a potent greenhouse effect and are widely used as refrigerants. Managing leaks and disposal of these chemicals can avoid emissions in buildings and landfills.”DrawdownOIL SPILLSIn 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig sank in the Gulf of Mexico, making it one of the most environmentally damaging oil spills in history. The spill covered over 43,300 square miles. It killed and harmed dolphins, sea turtles, fish, and a variety of organisms (The environmental problems associated with oil have many layers. Not only does an oil spill kill wildlife and fishing industries, but oil is also a fossil fuel that contributes to climate change. Although oil is a necessary source of energy in every developed and developing country today, it comes with dire environmental problems.WASTED NATURAL RESOURCES267.8 million tons of municipal solid waste went to landfills instead of being recycled, upcycled, composted, or used for something else in 2017, according to the EPA. That’s a lot of wasted natural resources that originally came from nature, in one form or another. In a circular economy, these natural resources would not be wasted. Instead, they could be upcycled, recycled, or used to regenerate other materials.Total Municipal Solid Waste Generated by Material, 2017. Image from the Environmental Protection Agency).PLASTIC POLLUTIONYou’ve probably seen images of marine life drowning in plastic pollution. Maybe you’re aware of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch which is about twice the size of Texas. The people and countries with the highest income generate the most plastic waste. That’s because we can afford to buy more stuff wrapped in plastic.Plastic pollution is a major environmental problem. Plastic comes from fossil fuels, which we need to phase out, so using less plastic is important. But ultimately solving the problem of plastic pollution may come down to improving waste management technology and creating a more circular economy for plastics.The pathway by which plastic enters the world’s oceans.Image courtesy of Our World in Data.FOOD WASTEFood waste2 is a big environmental problem. Up to 40% of food is wasted from farm to fork to landfill according to the National Resources Defense Council. There’s a lot of media coverage about how diet is related to the environment. But the majority of that coverage has to do with how individuals should eat, not how agriculture and waste management services should improve.Instead of focusing on how individuals should change their eating habits (which is so darned hard) the answers just might lie in improving technology and holding companies to higher environmental standards. This leads me to deforestation, which is closely related to agriculture.DEFORESTATIONDeforestation is linked to many environmental problems, and the biggest problem is agriculture according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States.Agri-businesses should meet their commitments to deforestation-free commodity chains and companies that have not made zero deforestation commitments should do so. Commodity investors should adopt business models that are environmentally and socially responsible. These actions will, in many cases, require a revision of current policies and financial incentives.
– Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
OCEAN ACIDIFICATIONOcean acidification is one of the main problems associated with climate change. It doesn’t get as much attention as other environmental problems, but it can have a major impact on ocean ecosystems.The ocean absorbs about 30% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) that is released in the atmosphere. As levels of atmospheric CO2 increase from human activity such as burning fossil fuels (e.g., car emissions) and changing land use (e.g., deforestation), the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the ocean also increases. When CO2 is absorbed by seawater, a series of chemical reactions occur resulting in the increased concentration of hydrogen ions. This process has far reaching implications for the ocean and the creatures that live there. National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONSNow that you understand the environmental problems we face today, it’s time to understand the potential environmental solutions. I say potential solutions because the cause and effect from environmental problem to environmental solution is complex. There’s a word for this, it’s called dynamic complexity.The below environmental solutions have the potential to solve different problems within a complex, dynamic, and interconnected system. But there is no magic bullet for environmental problems. So I encourage anyone interested in environmental solutions to think big-picture. Each solution is simply one piece of a giant puzzle. Again, look for progress rather than perfection.UN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALSThe UN Sustainable Development Goals offer the best possible framework for dealing with most of the problems listed above. These are the 17 goals that almost all countries have agreed to.
• No poverty
• Zero hunger
• Good health and well-being
• Quality education
• Gender equality
• Clean water and sanitation
• Affordable and clean energy
• Decent work and economic growth
• Industry, innovation, and infrastructure
• Reduced inequality
• Sustainable cities and communities
• Responsible consumption and production
• Climate action
• Life below water
• Life on Land
• Peace, justice, and strong institutions
• Partnerships and Goals
GREEN INNOVATIONGreen innovation may be the most important environmental solution. People around the world are working on new technologies and solutions that could revolutionize the way we look at energy and waste. We haven’t scratched the surface yet on how humanity will solve these problems. But there’s no time to waste, and we need governments and companies to invest in research and development.One step is to lay the foundation for innovation by drastically increasing government funding for research on clean energy solutions. Right now, the world spends only a few billion dollars a year on researching early-stage ideas for zero-carbon energy. It should be investing two or three times that much.”Bill GatesRea Scary virus does not even make affected individuals feel sick and it comes with up to a seventy percent chance of death for those who catch it. Here are some of the most lethal viruses known to mankind that may have you.
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Bangladeshi democratic alliance trying to help Bangladeshi all people to organize party wise seminars, congress. Workshops and meeting to conscious peoples against the virus pandemic besides these they are helping people to donate blanket, winter clothes and mask and other antivirus sanitary articles and dry foods etc. This is really they are bringing social economy welfare to the country. We are American Bangladeshi congratulate to them for their selfless help towards human being. While thechairman Mr. Muhammad SahabuddinBatchuof the democratic alliance was here at NY.USA .He declare that we are not for power we are here and everywhere for serve suffering human being and MR.BATCHU said. Our philosophy is: we will be there where anyone suffered because all human being are the limbs of one frame. If anyone suffered it means whole world suffered.

According his advices we are organizing scientific seminars about the greatest problems facing the world today is virus pandemic problems. CHAIRMAN MR. MUHAMMAD SAHABUDDIN BATCHU said: the world is now on war against-COVID.so, now our party targets to educate our people about the virus.Though we cannot see them, viruses are scarier than spiders and any creepy-crawling bug anyone can imagine. Many of them have wiped out millions of individuals before a vaccine was established and survivors are often left with permanent reminders of their illness. One particularly scary virus does not even make affected individuals feel sick and it comes with up to a seventy percent chance of death for those who catch it. Here are some of the most lethal viruses known to mankind that will have you washing your hands every chance you get.
According to the World Health Organization, up to five hundred thousand individuals worldwide will die during the typical influenza season each year. A flu pandemic occurs when a new strain of the flu emerges. The worst ever recorded flu pandemic was the Spanish flu in 1918, which killed fifty to 100 million individuals in two years, including individuals in remote locations, such as the Arctic. This unusually deadly pandemic was the first of two influenza pandemics involving the H1N1 strain. Flu vaccines are available now; however, these only cover the most likely strains to appear in a given year, and may not always prevent the flu entirely, though they will shorten the illness and make it less severe should the patient still fall ill.RabiesThe story of rabies dates back to 2300 B.C. when Babylonians who were bitten by dogs went mad and died. While exposure to the virus is rare in North America today, rabies is still a serious problem in parts of Africa and India. Vaccines are available to prevent the sickness associated with bites from infected animals. If left untreated, the rabies virus attacks the central nervous system and death will ensue. Symptoms may include hallucinations, raging, and violent behavior, along with hydrophobia, which is the fear of water.SmallpoxBefore the World Health Assembly declared the world free of smallpox in 1980, the virus killed one in every three individuals it infected. More than three hundred million individuals died from smallpox in the twentieth century alone before an effective vaccination came to the rescue. The smallpox patients who survived often went blind and were left with permanent scars. Mortality rates were highest in civilizations in Europe. Symptoms of smallpox included issues like a severe rash, blistering, high fever, and oozing skin sores.Since the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first formally recognized in the 1980s, it has killed more than thirty-six million individuals worldwide. Since then, powerful antiviral drugs have become available to help infected individuals live longer, though there is currently no cure for the condition. The virus tends to spread throughout low and middle-income countries, where ninety-five percent of new infections develop. The virus, which attacks the immune system, is spread through body fluid contact of infected persons by means of sexual intercourse or by sharing needles.Is the main cause of severe diarrhea in young children and infants. According to the World Health Organization, more than four hundred and fifty-three thousand children under the five years old died from the virus in 2008 alone. Researchers believe the virus spreads through the fecal-oral route, or when small feces particles are consumed. There are two vaccines available to protect children in the developed world from rotavirus; however, the virus remains a killer in parts of the world where treatment is not widely available.Dengue FeverDengue is a virus carried by mosquitoes that can cause an Ebola-like disease known as dengue hemorrhagic fever. It is the leading cause of death in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Although there is currently no vaccine available for dengue hemorrhagic fever, it is not contagious and is treatable. According to the World Health Organization, dengue affects up to one million individuals a year. Symptoms of this condition include a fever, severe headache, and death if it is left untreated.HantavirusHantavirus is an airborne virus transmitted through an individual’s exposure to infected mice droppings. Different strains of the virus are carried by different mice species. Two of the more prominent strains of hantavirus are hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The two strains may cause issues such as edema and acute kidney failure. If infected, there is a one in fifteen percent mortality rate with severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, while hantavirus pulmonary syndrome has a thirty-eight percent mortality rate.LassaLassa is a virus carried by a West African species of rats known as Mastomys. The virus can be picked up by inhaling air near an infected rat’s feces and humans can spread it through body fluid contact. Lassa fever is responsible for approximately five thousand deaths a year in the West African areas of Liberia and Sierra Leone. Although there is no vaccine currently available, medical professionals have found some success in treating their patients with antiviral drugs during the early stages of the infection. Otherwise, Lassa fever has a fifteen to twenty percent mortality rate.MarburgThe Marburg virus, also known as BSL-4, was first identified in 1967 when a group of German and Serbian lab workers contracted a hemorrhagic fever from African green monkeys being used to research vaccines for polio. The Marburg virus, tragically, has no cure and is spread through human contact. Symptoms start with a headache, fever, rash, and then develop into internal bleeding, organ failure, and death. The mortality rate associated with the Marburg virus has progressed from twenty-five percent during the initial outbreak to eighty percent in recent cases.EbolaFirst discovered in the sub-Saharan African nations in 1976, Ebola is a deadly virus named after its location of origin near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Symptoms and complications of this virus include bleeding from the eyes, hemorrhagic fever, headache, sore throat, internal bleeding, organ failure, and death. One strain of the Ebola virus does not even make patients feel sick before progressive internal bleeding and organ failure begin. According to the World Health Organization, the mortality rate of Ebola is between fifty and seventy percent. There is no cure for Ebola, although it has been successfully treated in some cases.MeaslesAlso known as rubeola, measles is a highly contagious virus that can be prevented through vaccination. Symptoms of measles include runny nose, fever, conjunctivitis, and a rash. The rash associated with this condition typically begins on the face, and it consists of tiny red blotches that occur in clusters. The rash gradually spreads across the torso and arms, eventually spreading to the thighs, legs, and feet. When the rash is present, the patient’s fever will often rise, and it could be as high as 104 to 105.8 degrees Fahrenheit. A blood test can be used to diagnose measles, and treatment consists of post-exposure vaccination and the use of immune serum globulin. Fever reducers and antibiotics may also be used. Even with treatment, measles can cause serious complications, including ear infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, and encephalitis. If contracted during pregnancy, the virus may trigger early labor, and it is associated with low birth weight in the newborn. To prevent measles, two doses of vaccine are required, and these are normally given before a child enters elementary school. Without the vaccine, measles can be incredibly dangerous and often results in death.Hepatitis CHuffPostIndiaHepatitis C is a type of viral infection that can become chronic. The virus triggers liver inflammation, and it can lead to liver disease. Signs of hepatitis C include fatigue, easy bruising or bleeding, jaundice, reduced appetite, itchy skin, and swelling in the legs. Some patients may also deal with weight loss, spider angiomas, dark-colored urine, and fluid accumulation in the abdomen. Hepatitis C can be diagnosed through a blood test. Patients born between 1945 and 1965 have an increased risk of this condition, and doctors recommend that they consider being screened for hepatitis C. Individuals who received a blood transfusion prior to 1992 may also wish to be screened. If hepatitis C is diagnosed, doctors may perform MRI scans and special ultrasounds to assess the patient’s liver health and plan treatment. A number of oral medications are available for treatment, and doctors typically recommend that patients receive vaccinations for hepatitis A and hepatitis B to protect the liver as much as possible.Yellow FeverYellow fever is a type of viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes and is most prevalent in parts of Africa, Central America, and South America. This condition typically has an incubation period of three to six days, and many patients never experience any symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they begin after the incubation period and include fever, muscle pain, back pain, headaches, and loss of appetite. Some individuals might also develop nausea or vomiting. Thankfully, in the majority of cases, symptoms will resolve on their own within four days. A small percentage of patients with this illness may enter a second phase, which can be severe. Symptoms experienced during this phase generally include high fever, jaundice, dark-colored urine, and abdominal pain. Liver and kidney damage are common in this stage, and fifty percent of patients with this more severe form of yellow fever will die within ten days. A vaccination is available to prevent yellow fever, and patients traveling to certain countries may be required to show proof of vaccination. The vaccine should be used with caution in individuals over sixty years old.



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The Spanish flu was more deadly than COVID. Ultimately, the virus mutated so much that it got less deadly. But remnants of this are still with us today and that is why we need to adapt and live with COVID in a way that the public is able to tolerate.For COVID, we have unique challenges. Unlike Ebola and SARS, it can be spread by people who don’t realize they have it. SARS made people too sick so they were unable to walk around infecting everyone and were only infectious while symptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 has a lot of walking well where it infects a lot of people but doesn’t kill enough of them to run out of victims. For most people, it’s so mild that it convinces others they don’t have to take it seriously.
How has Omicron changed our approach to this virus?
Before Omicron, our vaccines offered good protection against severe disease and infection. While they maintain good protection against severe disease with Omicron, they have mostly lost their mojo against infection.Two doses of either Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines still provide moderately high protection (about 70 per cent) against hospitalization (about 90 per cent with Delta), then up to about 90 per cent after a booster. However, two doses of either vaccine is less effective against symptomatic infection – for AstraZeneca this is very low, and even after a booster, protection wanes.Our results shows mistake shows the system is “overwhelmed.”But the most important thing to remember is this – those who are vaccinated or bolstered are far less likely to get very sick.The main focus for the vaccination program needs to pivot back to preventing serious illness and death. Any additional protection that vaccines can provide against infection is an added bonus.Having a breakthrough infection does not mean the vaccine has failed. If you test positive after being vaccinated or having a booster and have mild symptoms or no symptoms at all, then the vaccine has worked as it prevented you from getting severe disease. The vaccines are flame retardants, not impenetrable firewalls.Is Omicron less severe?Omicron causes cold-type symptoms but that does not mean it will be mild for everyone and some will get seriously ill. Data from South Africa, Denmark, USA and UK suggest if you catch Omicron then you are 30-80 per cent less likely to become seriously ill compared with Delta.A child greets Santa through a plastic shield in a shopping Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa.In South Africa, there was a 70-90 per cent reduction in risk of hospitalization compared with Delta. The majority of the people who are hospitalized are unvaccinated and the elderly. The percentage of cases that were hospitalized was far lower for Omicron than previous waves for all age groups, including children.For the first time, there has been an uncoupling between cases and hospitalizations, meaning that although there was such a steep rise in cases, there were fewer hospitalizations compared with Delta which means a less severe variant. The reason for this is unknown. It may partly be due to high percentage of people having previously being infected (natural immunity provides some protection) as vaccination coverage is only about 40 per cent, and additionally a less virulent variant.Data from other countries also indicates that although Omicron is highly transmissible, it causes milder disease overall. In Denmark, whose excellent surveillance aims to capture and sequence every case, Omicron cases skyrocketed to the point where they are no longer able to capture every case and are monitoring hospitalizations instead. Early indications (in a country with high coverage of Pfizer) suggest 60 per cent fewer Omicron hospitalizations than Delta. However, this is early days and transmission so far predominates in the 20-30 year olds.In the UK, many people have also had prior infection and have had AstraZeneca vaccine like here. There is a 45-80 per cent reduced risk of hospitalizations, but similar to Denmark, infections are mainly in young adults so far.A technician inspects samples during COVID-19 antibody neutralization testing at the African Health Research Institute (AHRI) in Durban, South Africa.What will happen here?Changes to the virus seem to have made it less severe in an individual, but reduced severity is also due to immunity as a result of vaccination and previous bouts of COVID.Old age is still the biggest risk factor for severe disease. Boosters will help protect the elderly even further. The majority of Australians over 60 years and/or clinically vulnerable should be due boosters about now and in January and need to be prioritised for vaccination.What about everyone else?More than 90 per cent of the age eligible population are double dosed with Pfizer and because they are younger, are at lower risk of severe disease from Omicron, and this includes unvaccinated children.Being an unvaccinated, older adult is the biggest risk for hospitalization. With about 10 per cent of the eligible population unvaccinated and breakthrough infections common – that still remains a large number of people who are susceptible. Over the next 6-8 weeks there will be lots of infections, an increase in hospitalizations and furloughed staff. This will add further stress to healthcare services and needs to be avoided.How do we prevent infections?So, in the absence of any additional interventions, most of us will get infected at some stage whether we are unvaccinated, fully vaccinated or boostered.Some public health measures will be important as this pandemic is a long way from being over. Melbournians set a lockdown world record which will be remembered as one of the most extraordinary periods in our history – a time when people completely withdrew from social life to slow the spread of a dangerous pathogen and denied people access to family, and denied children their social development. What was doable in 2020 and 2021 is no longer palatable for most.To reduce infections now, some public health and safety measures are needed. The appetite for harsh measures, such as lockdowns, is no longer present. The critical issue is how to engage most people to adopt safe behaviors so they feel part of the solution, not strangulated, angered or made mentally unwell in the process.People’s desire to socialize, live life and see their relatives is not abnormal in the face of potential danger to themselves and others, and this desire is unlikely to change. The fact that this was made illegal for so long is something that is very raw and painful for many people.Recalibrating the response to the pandemic is critical and engaging the community essential. No individual measure is perfect. Something so simple as improving ventilation in workplaces, schools and other public places is not a personal imposition, won’t cause civil unrest but will help protect us from COVID and other common respiratory infections for years to come.Vaccination mandates are no longer scientifically sound. We should not have the unrealistic expectation that our current vaccines will prevent every infection, nor that it will be possible to chase every infection.Will this pandemic ever end?COVID has been catastrophic with about 5.5 million already dead and countless others having ongoing symptoms. We live on a planet with so much global inequity that much of Africa is unvaccinated. In our region, health systems are so weak that basic medical care, such as oxygen, is not even available. Elimination is such a long way off when only about 40 per cent of schools have a tap and one billion people live in a slum.So what’s going to happen next?In South Africa, it ripped through the community over a few weeks and now they are at the beginning of the tail end of Omicron. This is in a population with high prior exposure and low vaccination coverage, and a predominantly younger population.Viruses are most dangerous when they are introduced into a population that has never had contact with them before. The more “immunologically naive” people are, the more of them are likely to suffer from bad outcomes. In a population, like ours with high vaccination coverage, infection may achieve something close to herd immunity. This suggests that the next few months could provide us with significant protection against future strains of the virus.
A combination of vaccination and prior infection, attenuation of the virus into a less severe version, improved ventilation, availability of rapid testing that is freely available and improvements in treatment could turn this virus into what sceptics wrongly called it at the beginning of the pandemic: a bad cold or flu.Perhaps Omicron is a key turning point in the pandemic. Variants will continue to arise and ongoing surveillance for severe disease is needed. But one thing is certain, unless we do more to improve global inequity, this will continue to go on and on for longer.Let’s hope 2022 brings a new dawn. Let’s the happy new year 2021 brings us peace prosperity and happiness The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019, and attempts to contain it there failed, allowing it to spread across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 23 December 2021, the pandemic had caused more than 277 million cases and 5.37 million deaths, making it one of the deadliest in history.COVID-19 symptoms range from none to deadly. Severe illness is more likely in elderly patients and those with certain underlying medical conditions. COVID-19 is airborne, spread via air contaminated by microscopic virions (viral particles). The risk of infection is highest among people in close proximity, but can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors in poorly ventilated areas. Transmission rarely occurs via contaminated surfaces or fluids. Infected persons are typically contagious for 10 days, often beginning before or without symptomsMutations produced many strains (variants) with varying degrees of infectivity and virulence.COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and widely distributed in various countries since December 2020. Other recommended preventive measures include social distancing, masking, improving ventilation and air filtration, and quarantining those who have been exposed or are symptomatic. Treatments include monoclonal antibodies and symptom control. Governmental interventions include travel restrictions, lockdowns, business restrictions and closures, workplace hazard controls, quarantines, testing systems, and tracing contacts of the infected.The pandemic triggered severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruption and panic buying. The resultant near-global lockdowns saw an unprecedented pollution decrease. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions intensified. The pandemic raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights.The pandemic is known by several names. It may be referred to as the “coronavirus pandemic despite the existence of other human coronaviruses that have caused epidemics and outbreaks (e.g. SARS)During the initial outbreak in Wuhan, the virus and disease were commonly referred to as “coronavirus”, “Wuhan coronaviruthe coronavirus outbreak” and the “Wuhan coronavirus outbreak with the disease sometimes called “Wuhan pneumonia”.[14][15] In January 2020, the WHO recommended 2019-nCoVand 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease as interim names for the virus and disease per 2015 international guidelines against using geographical locations (e.g. Wuhan, China), animal species, or groups of people in disease and virus names in part to prevent social stigma WHO finalized the official names COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 on 11 February 2020]TedrosAdhanom explained: CO for corona, VI for virus, D for disease and 19 for when the outbreak was first identified (31 December 2019 WHO additionally uses “the COVID-19 virus” and “the virus responsible for COVID-19” in public communicationsWHO names variants of concern and variants of interest using Greek letters. The initial practice of naming them according to where the variants were identified (e.g. Delta began as the “Indian variant”) is no longer common A more systematic naming scheme reflects the variant’s PANGO lineage (e.g., Omicron’s lineage is B.1.1.529) and is used for other variantsSARS-CoV-2 is a newly discovered virus that is closely related to bat coronaviruses pangolin coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV The first known outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in November 2019. Many early cases were linked to people who had visited the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market there, but it is possible that human-to-human transmission began earlierThe scientific consensus is that the virus is most likely of zoonotic origin, from bats or another closely-related mammal Despite this, the subject has generated extensive speculation about alternate origins The origin controversy heightened geopolitical divisions, notably between the United States and ChinaThe earliest known infected person fell ill on 1 December 2019. That individual did not have a connection with the later wet market cluster However, an earlier case may have occurred on 17 November Two-thirds of the initial case cluster were linked with the market. Molecular clock analysis suggests that the index case is likely to have been infected between mid-October and mid-November 2019Official “case” counts refer to the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19 and whose test has been confirmed positive according to official protocols whether or not they experienced symptomatic disease. Many countries, early on, had official policies to not test those with only mild symptoms.Multiple studies claimed that total infections are considerably greater than reported cases The strongest risk factors for severe illness are obesity, complications of diabetes, anxiety disorders, and the total number of conditionsOn 9 April 2020, preliminary results found that in Gangelt, the centre of a major infection cluster in Germany, 15 percent of a population sample tested positive for antibodies.Screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women in New York City, and blood donors in the Netherlands, found rates of positive antibody tests that indicated more infections than reported.Seroprevalence-based estimates are conservative as some studies show that persons with mild symptoms do not have detectable antibodiesAn analysis in early 2020 of cases by age in China indicated that a relatively low proportion of cases occurred in individuals under 20It was not clear whether this was because young people were less likely to be infected, or less likely to develop symptoms and be tested.A retrospective cohort study in China found that children and adults were just as likely to be infected[Initial estimates of the basic reproduction number (R0) for COVID-19 in January were between 1.4 and 2.5 but a subsequent analysis claimed that it may be about 5.7 (with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.8 to 8.9 R0 can vary across populations/circumstances and is not to be confused with the effective reproduction number (commonly just called R), which takes into account mitigation efforts and immunity coming from vaccines and/or prior infection.As of December 2021, we find that the number of cases has continued to climb; this is due to several factors including new COVID-19 variants. As of 20 December there are 275,099,577 confirmed infected individuals worldwide

Semi-log plot of weekly new cases of COVID-19 in the world and the current top six countries (mean with deaths)
SCIENTIST MADE CONCLUSIONS: DON’T RUSH ON ANYTHINGS WHEN THE TIME IS RIGHT IT WILL HAPPEN .SEE THE GRAPH SCIENTICE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA.


COVID-19 total cases per 100 000 population from selected countries


COVID-19 active cases per 100 000 population from selected countries
SCIENTIST INTEGRITY SEE THE GRAPHGravediggers wearing protection against contamination bury the body of a man suspected of having died of Covid-19 in the cemetery of Vila Alpina, east side of São Paulo, in April 2020.As of 23 December 2021, more than 5.37 million]deaths had been attributed to COVID-19. The first confirmed death was in Wuhan on 9 January 2020 These numbers vary by region and over time, influenced by testing volume, healthcare system quality, treatment options, government response time since the initial outbreak, and population characteristics, such as age, sex, and overall health.[]Multiple measures are used to quantify mortality Official death counts typically include people who died after testing positive. Such counts exclude deaths without a test Conversely, deaths of people who died from underlying conditions following a positive test may be included Countries such as Belgium include deaths from suspected cases, including those without a test, thereby increasing counts.Official death counts have been claimed to underreport the actual death toll, because excess mortality (the number of deaths in a period compared to a long-term average) data show an increase in deaths that is not explained by COVID-19 deaths alone Using such data, estimates of the true number of deaths from COVID-19 worldwide have included a range from 9.5 to 18.6 million by The Economist,[4] as well as over 10.3 million by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Such deaths include deaths due to healthcare capacity constraints and priorities, as well as reluctance to seek care (to avoid possible infection).The time between symptom onset and death ranges from 6 to 41 days, typically about 14 days Mortality rates increase as a function of age. People at the greatest mortality risk are the elderly and those with underlying conditions.

Semi-log plot of weekly deaths due to COVID-19 in the world and top six current countries (mean with cases).
WITH THE NEW DAY COMES NEW STRENGTH AND NEW THOUGHTS.


COVID-19 deaths per 100 000 population from selected countries
WHO provided two reporting codes for COVID-19: U07.1 when confirmed by laboratory testing and U07.2 for clinically or epidemiological diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is inconclusive or not available. The US did not implement U07.2 for mortality statistics “because laboratory test results are not typically reported on death certificates in the US, while U07.1 is used “If the death certificate reports terms such as ‘probable COVID-19’ or ‘likely COVID-19’Infection fatality ratio (IFR)The infection fatality ratio (IFR) is the cumulative number of deaths attributed to the disease divided by the cumulative number of infected individuals (including asymptomatic and undiagnosed infections). It is expressed in percentage points (not as a decimal Other studies refer to this metric as the ‘infection fatality risk’In November 2020, a review article in Nature reported estimates of population-weighted IFRs for various countries, excluding deaths in elderly care facilities, and found a median range of 0.24% to 1.49%.IFRs rise as a function of age (from 0.002% at age 10 and 0.01% at age 25, to 0.4% at age 55, 1.4% at age 65, 4.6% at age 75, and 15% at age 85). These rates vary by a factor of ~10,000 across the age groups For comparison the IFR for middle-aged adults is two orders of magnitude more likely than the annualised risk of a fatal automobile accident and far more dangerous than seasonal influenzaIn December 2020, a systematic review and meta-analysis estimated that population-weighted IFR was 0.5% to 1% in some countries (France, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Portugal), 1% to 2% in other countries (Australia, England, Lithuania, and Spain), and about 2.5% in Italy. This study reported that most of the differences reflected corresponding differences in the population’s age structure and the age-specific pattern of infections.Case fatality ratio (CFR)Another metric in assessing death rate is the case fatality ratio (CFR which is the ratio of deaths to diagnoses. This metric can be misleading because of the delay between symptom onset and death and because testing focuses on symptomatic individualsBased on Johns Hopkins University statistics, the global CFR is 1.94 percent (5,379,682 deaths for 277,238,940 cases) as of 23 December 2021 The number varies by region and has generally declined over time.Disease
Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness Common symptoms include headache, loss of smell and taste, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.[90] In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of cases.Of people who show symptoms, 81% develop only mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging) and 5% of patients suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction At least a third of the people who are infected with the virus do not develop noticeable symptoms at any point in time. These asymptomatic carriers tend not to get tested and can spread the disease Other infected people will develop symptoms later, called “pre-symptomatic”, or have very mild symptoms and can also spread the virus.As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days.Most people recover from the acute phase of the disease. However, some people – over half of a cohort of home-isolated young adults– continue to experience a range of effects, such as fatigue, for months after recovery, a condition called long COVID; long-term damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease

The respiratory route of spread of COVID-19, encompassing larger droplets and aerosols.The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route when people inhale droplets and small airborne particles (that form an aerosol) that infected people exhale as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing.Infected people are more likely to transmit COVID-19 when they are physically close. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.Infectivity can occur 1-3 days before the onset of symptoms.[110] Infected persons can spread the disease even if they are pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic Most commonly, the peak viral load in upper respiratory tract samples occurs close to the time of symptom onset and declines after the first week after symptoms begin Current evidence suggests a duration of viral shedding and the period of infectiousness of up to 10 days following symptom onset for persons with mild to moderate COVID-19, and a up to 20 days for persons with severe COVID-19, including immunocompromisedpersonsInfectious particles range in size from aerosols that remain suspended in the air for long periods of time to larger droplets that remain airborne or fall to the ground. Additionally, COVID-19 research has redefined the traditional understanding of how respiratory viruses are transmitted The largest droplets of respiratory fluid do not travel far, and can be inhaled or land on mucous membranes on the eyes, nose, or mouth to infect Aerosols are highest in concentration when people are in close proximity, which leads to easier viral transmission when people are physically close but airborne transmission can occur at longer distances, mainly in locations that are poorly ventilated in those conditions small particles can remain suspended in the air for minutes to hoursThe number of people generally infected by one infected person varies as only 10 to 20% of people are responsible for the disease’s spread It often spreads in clusters, where infections can be traced back to an index case or geographical location Often in these instances, superspreading events occur, where many people are infected by one personSARS CoV 2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses.t is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.Viral genetic sequence data can provide critical information about whether viruses separated by time and space are likely to be epidemiologically linked With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. By 12 January 2020, five genomes of SARS CoV 2 had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) and other institutions the number of genomes increased to 42 by 30 January 2020 A phylogenetic analysis of those samples showed they were “highly related with at most seven mutations relative to a common ancestor”, implying that the first human infection occurred in November or December 2019 Examination of the topology of the phylogenetic tree at the start of the pandemic also found high similarities between human isolates As of 21 August 2021, 3,422 SARS CoV 2 genomes, belonging to 19 strains, sampled on all continents except Antarctica were publicly available.Demonstration of a nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 testingThe standard methods of testing for presence of SARS-CoV-2 are nucleic acid tests which detects the presence of viral RNA fragments As these tests detect RNA but not infectious virus, its “ability to determine duration of infectivity of patients is limited The test is typically done on respiratory samples obtained by a nasopharyngeal swab; however, a nasal swab or sputum sample may also be used Results are generally available within hours The WHO has published several testing protocols for the disease.Chest CT scans may be helpful to diagnose COVID-19 in individuals with a high clinical suspicion of infection but are not recommended for routine screening. Bilateral multilobar ground-glass opacities with a peripheral, asymmetric, and posterior distribution are common in early infection Subpleural dominance, crazy paving (lobular septal thickening with variable alveolar filling), and consolidation may appear as the disease progresses Characteristic imaging features on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of people who are symptomatic include asymmetric peripheral ground-glass opacities without pleural effusions
Prevention
: COVID-19 § Prevention, Face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic, and pandemic Without pandemic containment measures – such as social distancing, vaccination, and face masks – pathogens can spread exponentially This graphic shows how early adoption of containment measures tends to protect wider swaths of the population.Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection include getting vaccinated, staying at home, wearing a mask in public, avoiding crowded places, keeping distance from others, ventilating indoor spaces, managing potential exposure durations,washing hands with soap and water often and for at least twenty seconds, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and avoiding touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands.
Those diagnosed with COVID-19 or who believe they may be infected are advised by the CDC to stay home except to get medical care, call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider, wear a face mask before entering the healthcare provider’s office and when in any room or vehicle with another person, cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue, regularly wash hands with soap and water and avoid sharing personal household A doctor at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center receiving a COVID-19 vaccinationA COVID 19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV 2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19). Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020 The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID 19.The COVID 19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the severity and death caused by COVID 19.Many countries have implemented phased distribution plans that prioritize those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workersAs of late-December 2021, more than 4.49 billion people had received one or more doses(8+ million in total) in over 197 countries. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was the most widely usedTreatmentFor the first two years of the pandemic no specific, effective treatment or cure was available In 2021, the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) approved the oral antiviral protease inhibitor, Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir plus AIDS drug ritonavir), to treat adult patients.FDA later gave it an EUA.A critically ill patient receiving invasive ventilation in the intensive care unit of the Heart Institute, University of São Paulo. Due to a shortage of mechanical ventilators, a bridge ventilator is being used to automatically actuate a bag valve mask.Most cases of COVID-19 are mild. In these, supportive care includes medication such as paracetamol or NSAIDs to relieve symptoms (fever,body aches, cough), adequate intake of oral fluids and rest Good personal hygiene and a healthy diet are also recommended.Supportive care includes treatment to relieve symptoms, fluid therapy, oxygen support and prone positioning, and medications or devices to support other affected vital organs.[162] More severe cases may need treatment in hospital. In those with low oxygen levels, use of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone is recommended, to reduce mortality.[163] Noninvasive ventilation and, ultimately, admission to an intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation may be required to support breathing.[164] Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to address the issue of respiratory failure.Existing drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ivermectin and so-called early treatment are not recommended by US or European health authorities Two monoclonal antibody-based therapies are available for early use in high-risk cases.[168] The antiviral remdesivir is available in the US, Canada, Australia, and several other countries, with varying restrictions; however, it is not recommended for use with mechanical ventilation, and is discouraged altogether by the World Health Organization (WHO due to limited evidence of its efficacySeveral variants have been named by WHO and labeled as a variant of concern (VoC) or a variant of interest (VoI). They share the more infectious D614G mutation Delta dominated and then eliminated earlier VoC from most jurisdictions. Omicron’s immune escape ability may allow it to spread via breakthrough infections, which in turn may allow it to coexist with Delta, which more often infects the unvaccinated

 

 

 

 

 

Variants
Name Lineage Detected Countries Priority
Alpha
B.1.1.7
UK 190 VoC
Beta
B.1.351
South Africa 140 VoC
Delta
B.1.617.2
India 170 VoC
Gamma
P.1
Brazil 90 VoC
Lambda
C.37
Peru 30 VoI
Mu
B.1.621
Colombia 57 VoI
Omicron
B.1.1.529
Botswana 77 VoC[174]

The severity of COVID-19 varies. The disease may take a mild course with few or no symptoms, resembling other common upper respiratory diseases such as the common cold. In 3–4% of cases (7.4% for those over age 65) symptoms are severe enough to cause hospitalization Mild cases typically recover within two weeks, while those with severe or critical diseases may take three to six weeks to recover. Among those who have died, the time from symptom onset to death has ranged from two to eight weeks The Italian IstitutoSuperiore di Sanità reported that the median time between the onset of symptoms and death was twelve days, with seven being hospitalised. However, people transferred to an ICU had a median time of ten days between hospitalisation and death. Prolonged prothrombin time and elevated C-reactive protein levels on admission to the hospital are associated with severe course of COVID-19 and with a transfer to ICU.StrategiesThe CDC and WHO advise that masks (such as worn here by Taiwanese president Tsai Ing-wen) reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2.Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behavior changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into containment and mitigation. These can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve) and lessening overall cases and health impact Moreover, progressively greater increases in healthcare capacity (raising the line) such as by increasing bed count, personnel, and equipment, help to meet increased demand.ContainmentContainment is undertaken to stop an outbreak from spreading into the general population. Infected individuals are isolated while they are infectious. The people they have interacted with are contacted and isolated for long enough to ensure that they are either not infected or no longer contagious. Successful containment or suppression reduces Rt to less than 1Screening is the starting point for containment. Screening is done by checking for symptoms to identify infected individuals, who can then be isolated and/or offered treatmentMitigationShould containment fail, efforts focus on mitigation: measures taken to slow the spread and limit its effects on the healthcare system and society.Successful mitigation delays and decreases the epidemic peak, known as “flattening the epidemic curve This decreases the risk of overwhelming health services and provides more time for developing vaccines and treatments.Individual behavior changed in many jurisdictions. Many people worked from home instead of at their traditional workplaces. People chose to homeschool their children.Non-pharmaceutical interventionsNon-pharmaceutical interventions that may reduce spread include personal actions such as hand hygiene, wearing face masks, and self-quarantine; community measures aimed at reducing interpersonal contacts such as closing workplaces and schools and cancelling large gatherings; community engagement to encourage acceptance and participation in such interventions; as well as environmental measures such as surface cleaning Many such measures were criticised as hygiene theatreOther measuresMore drastic actions, such as quarantining entire populations and strict travel bans have been attempted in various jurisdictions.[188] China and Australia’s lockdowns have been the most strict. New Zealand implemented the most severe travel restrictions. South Korea introduced mass screening and localised quarantines, and issued alerts on the movements of infected individuals. Singapore provided financial support, quarantined, and imposed large fines for those who broke quarantineContact tracing attempts to identify recent contacts of newly-infected individuals, and to screen them for infection The traditional approach is to request a list of contacts from infectees, and then telephone or visit the contacts.Another approach is to collect location data from mobile devices to identify those who have come in significant contact with infectees, which prompted privacy concerns On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple announced an initiative for privacy-preserving contact tracing In Europe and in the US, Palantir Technologies initially provided COVID-19 tracking servicesWHO described increasing capacity and adapting healthcare as a fundamental mitigation. The ECDC and WHO’s European regional office issued guidelines for hospitals and primary healthcare services for shifting resources at multiple levels, including focusing laboratory services towards testing, cancelling elective procedures, separating and isolating patients, and increasing intensive care capabilities by training personnel and increasing ventilators and beds. The pandemic drove widespread adoption of telehealth
Improvised manufacturing
Due to capacity supply chains limitations, some manufacturers began 3D printing material such as nasal swabs and ventilator parts. In one example, an Italian startup received legal threats due to alleged patent infringement after reverse-engineering and printing one hundred requested ventilator valves overnight On 23 April 2020, NASA reported building, in 37 days, a ventilator which is undergoing further testing Individuals and groups of makers created and shared open source designs, and manufacturing devices using locally sourced materials, sewing, and 3D printing. Millions of face shields, protective gowns, and masks were made. Other ad hoc medical supplies included shoe covers, surgical caps, powered air-purifying respirators, and hand sanitizer. Novel devices were created such as ear savers, non-invasive ventilation helmets, and ventilator splitters
Herd immunity
In July 2021, several experts expressed concern that achieving herd immunity may not be possible because Delta can transmit among vaccinated individuals CDC published data showing that vaccinated people could transmit Delta, something officials believed was less likely with other variants. Consequently, WHO and CDC encouraged vaccinated people to continue with NPIs.

Interactive timeline map of confirmed cases per million people
(drag circle to adjust; may not work on mobile devices)
The outbreak was discovered in Wuhan in November 2019. It is possible that human-to-human transmission was happening before the discovery. Based on a retrospective analysis starting from December 2019, the number of cases in Hubei gradually increased, reaching 60 by 20 December and at least 266 by 31 DecemberA pneumonia cluster was observed on 26 December and treated by Doctor Zhang Jixian. He informed the Wuhan Jianghan CDC on 27 December Vision Medicals reported the discovery of a novel coronavirus to the China CDC (CCDC) on 28 December.
On 30 December, a test report from CapitalBioMedlab addressed to Wuhan Central Hospital reported an erroneous positive result for SARS, causing doctors there to alert authorities. Eight of those doctors, including Li Wenliang (who was also punished on 3 January were later admonished by the police for spreading false rumours; and Dr. Ai Fen was reprimanded.That evening, Wuhan Municipal Health Commission (WMHC) issued a notice about “the treatment of pneumonia of unknown cause” The next day, WMHC made the announcement public, confirming 27 cases—enough to trigger an investigation.On 31 December, the WHO office in China was informed of cases of the pneumonia cases and immediately launched an investigation.Official Chinese sources claimed that the early cases were mostly linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, which also sold live animals However, in May 2020, CCDC director George Gao indicated the market was not the origin (animal samples had tested negative
On 11 January, WHO was notified by the Chinese National Health Commission that the outbreak was associated with exposures in the market, and that China had identified a new type of coronavirus, which it isolated on 7 January.
Initially, the number of cases doubled approximately every seven and a half days In early and mid-January, the virus spread to other Chinese provinces, helped by the Chinese New Year migration. Wuhan was a transport hub and major rail interchange On 10 January, the virus’ genome was shared through GISAID A retrospective study published in March found that 6,174 people had reported symptoms by 20 January A 24 January report indicated human transmission, recommended personal protective equipment for health workers, and advocated testing, given the outbreak’s “pandemic potential”. On 31 January the first published modelling study warned of inevitable “independent self-sustaining outbreaks in major cities globally” and called for “large-scale public health interventionsOn 30 January, 7,818 infections had been confirmed, leading WHO to declare the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). On 11 March, WHO elevated it to a pandemic.By 31 January, Italy had its first confirmed infections, in two tourists from China On 19 March, Italy overtook China as the country with the most reported deaths By 26 March, the United States had overtaken China and Italy as the country with the highest number of confirmed infections.[232] Genomic analysis indicated that the majority of New York’s confirmed infections came from Europe, rather than directly from Asia.Testing of prior samples revealed a person who was infected in France on 27 December 2019 and a person in the United States who died from the disease on 6 FebruaryIn October, WHO reported that one in ten people around the world may have been infected, or 780 million people, while only 35 million infections had been confirmedOn 9 November, Pfizer released trial results for a candidate vaccine, showing that 90% effectiveness against severe infection That day, Novavax entered an FDA Fast Track application for their vaccine.
On 14 December, Public Health England reported that a variant had been discovered in the UK’s southeast, predominantly in Kent. The variant, later named Alpha, showed changes to the spike protein that could be more infectious. As of 13 December, 1,108 infections had been confirmed.CanSino was the first vaccine to be approved, by China on 24 June. Other vaccines were approved later that year, including Sputnik V (Russia), BNT162b2 (US, UK, EU and others), Sinopharm (Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates) and mRNA-1273 (US).

On 2 January, the Alpha variant, first discovered in the UK, had been identified in 33 countries.On 6 January, the Gamma variant was first identified in Japanese travellers returning from BrazilOn 29 January, it was reported that the Novavax vaccine was 49% effective against the Beta variant in a clinical trial in South Africa. The CoronaVac vaccine was reported to be 50.4% effective in a Brazil clinical trial
On 12 March, several countries stopped using the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine due to blood clotting problems, specifically cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) On 20 March, the WHO and European Medicines Agency found no link to thrombus, leading several countries to resume the vaccineIn March WHO reported that an animal host was the most likely origin, without ruling out other possibilitiesThe Delta variant was first identified in India. In mid-April, the variant was first detected in the UK and two months later it had metastasized into a third wave there, forcing the government to delay reopening that was originally scheduled for JuneOn November 10, Germany advised against the Moderna vaccine for people under 30.National reactions ranged from strict lockdowns to public education.WHO recommended that curfews and lockdowns should be short-term measures to reorganise, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect the health care systemAs of 26 March 2020, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown This increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April—more than half the world’s population.As of the end of 2021, Asia’s peak had come at the same time and at the same level as the world as a whole, in May 2021.However, cumulatively they had experienced only half the world average China opted for containment, inflicting strict lockdowns to eliminate spread.As of 14 July 2020, 83,545 cases had been confirmed in China, along with 4,634 deaths and 78,509 recoveries In November 2020 some 1 million people had been vaccinated, according to China’s state council. The vaccines included the BIBP, WIBP, and CoronaVacMultiple sources cast doubt upon the accuracy of China’s official numbers, with some suggesting intentional data suppression.
It was reported on 11 December 2021 that China had vaccinated 1.162 billion of its citizens, or 82.5% of the total population of the country against Covid-19
Indian officials conducting temperature checks at the RathaYatra Hindu festival on 23 June 2020
The first case in India was reported on 30 January 2020. India ordered a nationwide lockdown starting 24 March 2020 with a phased unlock beginning 1 June 2020. Six cities accounted for around half of reported cases—Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Pune and Kolkata.A second wave hit India in April 2021, straining healthcare services.

Disinfection of Tehran Metro trains against COVID-19 transmission. Similar measures have also been taken in other countries
Iran reported its first confirmed cases on 19 February 2020 in Qom. Early measures included the cancellation of concerts and other cultural events Friday prayers and education shutdowns
Iran became a centre of the pandemic in February 2020 More than ten countries had traced their outbreaks to Iran by 28 February, indicating a more severe outbreak than the 388 reported cases The Iranian Parliament closed, after 23 of its 290 members tested positive on 3 March 2020 At least twelve sitting or former Iranian politicians and government officials had died by 17 March 2020By August 2021, the pandemic’s fifth wave peaked, with more than 400 deaths in 1 dayIn Japan, the pandemic was believed to have damaged mental health. According to the report by the country’s National Police Agency, suicides increased to 2,153 in October 2020. Experts stated that the pandemic had worsened mental health issues due to lockdowns and isolation from family members, among other issues

A drive-through test centre at the Gyeongju Public Health Centre
COVID-19 was confirmed in South Korea on 20 January 2020. Military bases were quarantined after tests showed three infected soldiersSouth Korea introduced what was then considered the world’s largest and best-organised screening programme, isolating infected people, and tracing and quarantining contacts Screening methods included mandatory self-reporting by new international arrivals through mobile application,combined with drive-through testing,and increasing testing capability to 20,000 people/day Despite some early criticisms South Korea’s programme was considered a success in controlling the outbreak without quarantining entire cities.The global COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Europe with its first confirmed case in Bordeaux, France, on 24 January 2020, and subsequently spread widely across the continent. By 17 March 2020, every country in Europe had confirmed a case and all have reported at least one death, with the exception of Vatican City.
Italy was the first European nation to experience a major outbreak in early 2020, becoming the first country worldwide to introduce a national lockdown By 13 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Europe the epicentre of the pandemic and it remained so until the WHO announced it has been overtaken by South America on 22 May.[294] By 18 March 2020, more than 250 million people were in lockdown in Europe Despite deployment of COVID-19 vaccines, Europe became the pandemic’s epicentre once again in late 2021.On 21 August, it was reported the COVID-19 cases were climbing among younger individuals across Europe On 21 November, it was reported by the Voice of America that Europe is the worst hit area by COVID-19, with numbers exceeding 15 million cases
On 22 November, the WHO indicated that a new surge of the virus in Europe had caused Austria to implement another lockdown, while other countries in the region such as Germany are contemplating a lockdown, due to rising cases, as wellThe earliest discovered infection came from an old sample sample collected on 27 December 2019 A superspreader event in the outbreak was the annual assembly of the Christian Open Door Church between 17 and 24 February. It was attended by about 2,500 people, at least half of whom were believed to have contracted the virus.
On 13 March, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe ordered the closure of “non-essential” public places,[ and on 16 March, President Emmanuel Macron announced mandatory home confinement.Civil Protection volunteers conduct health checks at the Guglielmo Marconi Airport in Bologna on 5 February 2020.The Italian outbreak began on 31 January 2020, when two Chinese tourists tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Rome.]Cases began to rise sharply, which prompted the government to suspend flights to and from China and declare a state of emergencyOn 22 February 2020, the Council of Ministers announced a new decree-law to contain the outbreak, including quarantining more than 50,000 people in northern Italy. On 4 March the Italian government ordered schools and universities closed as Italy reached a hundred deaths. Sport was suspended completely for at least one month.On 11 March Conte stopped nearly all commercial activity except supermarkets and pharmaciesOn 19 March Italy overtook China as the country with the most COVID-19-related deaths On 19 April the first wave ebbed, as 7-day deaths declined to 433 On 13 October, the Italian government again issued restrictive rules to contain the second wave.On 10 November Italy surpassed 1 million confirmed infections. On 23 November, it was reported that the second wave of the virus had led some hospitals to stop accepting patientsResidents of Valencia, Spain, maintaining social distancing while queueing (20 March 2020)The virus was first confirmed to have spread to Spain on 31 January 2020, when a German tourist tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in La Gomera, Canary Islands Post-hoc genetic analysis has shown that at least 15 strains of the virus had been imported, and community transmission began by mid-FebruaryOn 29 March, it was announced that, beginning the following day, all non-essential workers were ordered to remain at home for the next 14 days By late March, the Community of Madrid has recorded the most cases and deaths in the country. Medical professionals and those who live in retirement homes have experienced especially high infection rates On 25 March, the official death toll in Spain surpassed that of mainland China.On 2 April, 950 people died of the virus in a 24-hour period—at the time, the most by any country in a single day. On 17 May, the daily death toll announced by the Spanish government fell below 100 for the first time and 1 June was the first day without deaths by COVID-19.The state of alarm ended on 21 June.However, the number of cases increased again in July in a number of cities including Barcelona, Zaragoza and Madrid, which led to reimposition of some restrictions but no national lockdownAs of September 2021, Spain is one of the countries with the highest percentage of its population vaccinated (76% fully vaccinated and 79% with the first dose), while also being one of the countries more in favor of vaccines against COVID-19 (nearly 94% of its population is already vaccinated or wants to be).]Sweden differed from most other European countries in that it mostly remained open. Per the Swedish Constitution, the Public Health Agency of Sweden has autonomy that prevents political interference and the agency favoured remaining open. The Swedish strategy focused on longer-term measures, based on the assumption that after lockdown the virus would resume spreading, with the same result By the end of June, Sweden no longer had excess mortalityDevolution in the United Kingdom meant that each of its four countries developed its own response. England’s restrictions were shorter-lived than the others. The UK government started enforcing social distancing and quarantine measures on 18 March It was criticised for a perceived lack of intensity in its response. On 16 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson advised against non-essential travel and social contact, praising work from home and avoiding venues such as pubs, restaurants, and theatres.On 20 March, the government ordered all leisure establishments to close and promised to prevent unemployment On 23 March, Johnson banned gatherings and restricted non-essential travel and outdoor activity. Unlike previous measures, these restrictions were enforceable by police through fines and dispersal of gatherings. Most non-essential businesses were ordered to closeOn 24 April, it was reported that a promising vaccine trial had begun in England; the government pledged more than £50 million towards researchOn 16 April, it was reported that the UK would have first access to the Oxford vaccine, due to a prior contract; should the trial be successful, some 30 million doses would be availableOn 2 December, the UK became the first developed country to approve the Pfizer vaccine; 800,000 doses were immediately available for use On 9 December, MHRA stated that any individual with a significant allergic reaction to a vaccine, such as an anaphylactoid reaction, should not take the Pfizer vaccine.The first cases of the COVID-19 pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 in North America were reported in the United States on 23 January 2020. Cases were reported in all North American countries after Saint Kitts and Nevis confirmed a case on 25 March, and in all North American territories after Bonaire confirmed a case on 16 AprilPercentage of the population vaccinated with at least one dose as of November 6, 2021The virus was confirmed to have reached Canada on January 27, 2020, after an individual who had returned to Toronto from Wuhan, Hubei, China, tested positive. The first case of community transmission in Canada was confirmed in British Columbia on March 5. In March 2020, as cases of community transmission were confirmed, all of Canada’s provinces and territories declared states of emergency. Provinces and territories have, to varying degrees, implemented school and daycare closures, prohibitions on gatherings, closures of non-essential businesses and restrictions on entry. Canada severely restricted its border access, barring travellers from all countries with some exceptions. The federal Minister of Health invoked the Quarantine Act, introduced following the 2002–2004 SARS outbreakNear the end of summer 2021, cases began to surge across Canada, notably in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec and Ontario, particularly amongst the unvaccinated population. During this fourth wave of the virus, return to pandemic restrictions such as mask mandates were reinstated in provinces like British Columbia and Alberta Due to the surge in cases largely being a “pandemic of the unvaccinated”, vaccine passports were adopted in all provinces and two of the territories51,545,991confirmed cases have been reported in the United States with 812,069deaths, the most of any country, and the nineteenth-highest per capita worldwideAs many infections have gone undetected, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that, as of May 2021, there could be a total 120.2 million infections in the United States, or more than a third of the total population. COVID-19 is the deadliest pandemic in U.S. history;[ it was the third-leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2020, behind heart disease and cancer.From 2019 to 2020, U.S. life expectancy dropped by 3 years for Hispanic Americans, 2.9 years for African Americans, and 1.2 years for white AmericansThese effects have persisted as U.S. deaths due to COVID-19 in 2021 exceeded those in 2020.COVID-19 vaccines became available in December 2020, under emergency use, beginning the national vaccination program, with the first vaccine officially approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on August 23, 2021 Studies have shown them to be highly protective against severe illness, hospitalization, and death. In comparison with fully vaccinated people, the CDC found that those who were not vaccinated were from 5 to nearly 30 times more likely to become either infected or hospitalized. There has nonetheless been some vaccine hesitancy for various reasons, although side effects are rareThe COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached South America on 26 February 2020 when Brazil confirmed a case in São Paulo By 3 April, all countries and territories in South America had recorded at least one caseOn 13 May 2020, it was reported that Latin America and the Caribbean had reported over 400,000 cases of COVID-19 infection with, 23,091 deaths. On 22 May 2020, citing the rapid increase of infections in Brazil, the World Health Organization WHO declared South America the epicentre of the pandemic.As of 16 July 2021, South America had recorded 34,359,631 confirmed cases and 1,047,229 deaths from COVID-19. Due to a shortage of testing and medical facilities, it is believed that the outbreak is far larger than the official numbers showPresident JairBolsonaro created controversy by referring to the virus as a “little flu” and frequently speaking out against preventive measures such as lockdowns and quarantines. His attitude towards the outbreak was likened to that of then US President Trump. Bolsonaro was called the “Trump of the Tropics Bolsonaro later tested positive for the virus.In June 2020, the government of Brazil attempted to conceal active case and death and death counts, ceasing to publish cumulative data.The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Africa on 14 February 2020, with the first confirmed case announced in Egypt. The first confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa was announced in Nigeria at the end of February 2020. Within three months, the virus had spread throughout the continent, as Lesotho, the last African sovereign state to have remained free of the virus, reported a case on 13 May 2020 By 26 May, it appeared that most African countries were experiencing community transmission, although testing capacity was limited Most of the identified imported cases arrived from Europe and the United States rather than from China where the virus originatedIn early June 2021, Africa faced a third wave of COVID infections with cases rising in 14 countries. By 4 July the continent recorded more than 251,000 new Covid cases, a 20% increase from the prior week and a 12% increase from the January peak. More than sixteen African countries, including Malawi and Senegal, recorded an uptick in new cases The World Health Organization labelled it Africa’s ‘Worst Pandemic Week Ever’.The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Oceania on 25 January 2020 with the first confirmed case reported in Melbourne, Australia.] It has since spread elsewhere in the region,[386] although many small Pacific island nations have thus far avoided the outbreak by closing their international borders. Two Oceania sovereign states (Nauru and Tuvalu) and one dependency (Cook Islands) have yet to report an active case. Australia and New Zealand were praised for their handling of the pandemic in comparison to other Western nations, with New Zealand and each state in Australia wiping out all community transmission of the virus several times even after re-introduction in the community.As a result of the high transmissibility of the Delta variant however, by August 2021, the Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria had conceded defeat in their eradication efforts. In early October 2021, New Zealand also abandoned its elimination strategyDue to its remoteness and sparse population, Antarctica was the last continent to have confirmed cases of COVID-19 and was one of the last regions of the world affected directly by the pandemic The first cases were reported in December 2020, almost a year after the first cases of COVID-19 were detected in China. At least 36 people are confirmed to have been infected.ResponsesThe pandemic shook the world’s economy, with especially severe economic damage in the United States, Europe, and Latin America A consensus report by American intelligence agencies in April 2021 concluded, “Efforts to contain and manage the virus have reinforced nationalist trends globally, as some states turned inward to protect their citizens and sometimes cast blame on marginalized groups.” COVID-19 inflamed partisanship and polarisation around the world as bitter arguments exploded over how to respond. International trade was disrupted amid the formation of no-entry enclavesThe pandemic led many countries and regions to impose quarantines, entry bans, or other restrictions, either for citizens, recent travellers to affected areas,[ or for all travellers.Travel collapsed worldwide, damaging the travel sector. The effectiveness of travel restrictions was questioned as the virus spread across the world One study found that travel restrictions only modestly affected the initial spread, unless combined with other infection prevention and control measures.Researchers concluded that “travel restrictions are most useful in the early and late phase of an epidemic” and “restrictions of travel from Wuhan unfortunately came too lateThe European Union rejected the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel zone

Ukraine evacuates Ukrainian and foreign citizens from Wuhan, China.Several countries repatriated their citizens and diplomatic staff from Wuhan and surroundings, primarily through charter flights. Canada, the United States, Japan, India Sri Lanka, Australia, France, Argentina, Germany, and Thailand were among the first to do so Brazil and New Zealand evacuated their own nationals and others On 14 March, South Africa repatriated 112 South Africans who tested negative, while four who showed symptoms were left behind Pakistan declined to evacuate its citizensOn 15 February, the US announced it would evacuate Americans aboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship and on 21 February, Canada evacuated 129 Canadians from the ship[ In early March, the Indian government began repatriating its citizens from Iran. On 20 March, the United States began to withdraw some troops from Iraq.United Nationsain
In June 2020, the Secretary-General of the United Nations launched the UN Comprehensive Response to COVID-19.The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNSC) was criticised for its slow response, especially regarding the UN’s global ceasefire, which aimed to open up humanitarian access to conflict zones.WHOThe WHO spearheaded initiatives such as the COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund to raise money for the pandemic response, the UN COVID-19 Supply Chain Task Force, and the solidarity trial for investigating potential treatment options for the disease. The COVAX program, co-led by the WHO, Gavi, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), aimed to accelerate the development, manufacture, and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, and to guarantee fair and equitable access across the world

.efforts and courage are not enough without purpose and direction. Our efforts should eradicated virus otherwise we are undone.The pandemic and responses to it damaged the global economy. On 27 February, worries about the outbreak crushed US stock indexes, which posted their sharpest falls since 2008Lloyd’s of London estimated that the global insurance industry would face losses of US$204 billion, exceeding the losses from the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season and 11 September attacks, suggesting that the pandemic would become the costliest disaster in human historyTourism collapsed due to travel restrictions, closing of public places including travel attractions, and advice of governments against travel. Airlines cancelled flights, while British regional airline Flybe collapsed The cruise line industry was hard hit and train stations and ferry ports closed International mail stopped or was delayedA socially distanced homeless encampment in San Francisco, California, in May 2020The retail sector faced reductions in store hours or temporary closures Retailers in Europe and Latin America faced traffic declines of 40 per cent. North America and Middle East retailers saw a 50–60 per cent drop Shopping centres faced a 33–43 per cent drop in foot traffic in March compared to February. Mall operators around the world coped by increasing sanitation, installing thermal scanners to check the temperature of shoppers, and cancelling events.
Hundreds of millions of jobs were lost globally including more than 40 million Americans.[ According to a report by Yelp, about 60% of US businesses that closed will stay shut permanentlyAccording to a United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America estimate, the pandemic-induced recession could leave 14–22 million more people in extreme poverty in Latin America According to the World Bank, up to 100 million more people globally could fall into extreme poverty due to the shutdowns The International Labour Organization (ILO) reported that the income generated in the first nine months of 2020 from work across the world dropped by 10.7 per cent, or $3.5 trillion.
Supply shortagesThe outbreak has been blamed for supply shortages from panic buying (emptying groceries of essentials such as food, toilet paper, and bottled water), and disruption to factory and logistic operations. Shortages were worsened by supply chain disruptions from factory and port shutdowns, and labor shortages.Panic buying stemmed from perceived threat, perceived scarcity, fear of the unknown, coping behaviour and social psychological factors (e.g. social influence and trust).Shortages continued as managers underestimated the speed of economic recovery after the initial economic crash. The technology industry, in particular, warned of delays from underestimates of semiconductor demand for vehicles and other productsAccording to WHO’s Adhanom, demand for personal protection equipment (PPE) rose one hundredfold, pushing prices up twentyfold PPE stocks were exhausted everywhere.The pandemic disrupted global food supplies. In April 2020, World Food Programme head David Beasley said “we could be facing multiple famines of biblical proportions within a short few monthsBy contrast, petroleum products were in surplus at the beginning of the pandemic, as demand for gasoline and other products collapsed due to reduced commuting and other trips The 2021 global energy crisis was driven by a global surge in demand as the world economy recovered. Energy demand was particularly strong in Asia
CultureAn American Catholic military chaplain prepares for a live-streamed Mass in an empty chapel at Offutt Air Force Base in March 2020.The performing arts and cultural heritage sectors have been profoundly affected by the pandemic, impacting organisations’ operations as well as individuals—both employed and independent—globally. By March 2020, across the world and to varying degrees, museums, libraries, performance venues, and other cultural institutions had been indefinitely closed with their exhibitions, events and performances cancelled or postponed Some services continued through digital platforms, such as live streaming concerts or web-based arts festivalsPoliticsAn Italian government task force meets to discuss COVID-19 in February 2020.The pandemic affected multiple countries’ political systems, causing suspensions of legislative activities,isolations or deaths of politicians,and rescheduled elections.Although they developed broad support among epidemiologists, NPIs (non-pharmaceutical interventions) were controversial in many countries. Intellectual opposition came primarily from other fields, along with a few heterodox epidemiologistsOn 23 March 2020, United Nations Secretary-General António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres appealed for a global ceasefire;172 UN Member States and Observers signed a non-binding supporting statement in June and the UN Security Council passed a resolution supporting it in July.
ChinaThe government of China was criticised by multiple countries for its handling of the pandemic. Multiple provincial-level administrators of the Communist Party of China were dismissed over their handling of quarantine measures. Some commentators claimed this move was intended to protect CCP general secretary Xi Jinping.The US intelligence community claimed that China intentionally under-reported its number of COVID-19 cases.The Chinese government maintained that it acted swiftly and transparently. Journalists and activists in China who reported on the pandemic were detained by authorities including Zhang Zhan, who was arrested and tortured for reporting on the pandemic and the detainment of other independent journalists.
ItalyIn early March, the Italian government criticised the EU’s lack of solidarity with COVID-19-affected ItalyOn 22 March, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, Russian president Vladimir Putin ordered the Russian army to send military medics, disinfection vehicles, and other medical equipment to Italy In early April, Norway and EU states like Romania and Austria started to offer help by sending medical personnel and disinfectant and Ursula von der Leyen offered an official apology to the country
United StatesSeveral hundred anti-lockdown protesters rallied at the Ohio Statehouse on 20 April 2020.The outbreak prompted calls for the United States to adopt social policies common in other wealthy countries, including universal health care, universal child care, paid sick leave, and higher levels of funding for public health Some political analysts claimed that it contributed to Trump’s loss in the 2020 presidential election Beginning in mid-April 2020, in several US states protests objected to government-imposed business closures and restricted personal movement and association.Simultaneously, protests ensued by essential workers in the form of a general strike In early October 2020, Trump, his family members, and many other government officials were diagnosed with COVID-19Russia sent a cargo plane with medical aid to the United States Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said “when offering assistance to US colleagues, [Putin] assumes that when US manufacturers of medical equipment and materials gain momentum, they will also be able to reciprocate if necessaryOther countriesRates of imprisoned or detained journalists increased worldwide, with some being related to the pandemicThe planned NATO “Defender 2020” military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states, the largest NATO war exercise since the end of the Cold War, was held on a reduced scale.The Iranian government was heavily affected by the virus, which infected some two dozen parliament members and political figures Iran President Hassan Rouhani wrote a public letter to world leaders asking for help on 14 March 2020, due to a lack of access to international markets.Saudi Arabia, which launched a military intervention in Yemen in March 2015, declared a ceasefireDiplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea worsened.] South Korea criticised Japan’s “ambiguous and passive quarantine efforts” after Japan announced anyone coming from South Korea must quarantine for two weeks. South Korean society was initially polarised on President Moon’s response to the crisis; many Koreans signed petitions calling for Moon’s impeachment or praising his response.Some countries passed emergency legislation. Some commentators expressed concern that it could allow governments to strengthen their grip on power In the Philippines, lawmakers granted president Rodrigo Duterte temporary emergency powers.In Hungary, the parliament voted to allow prime minister ViktorOrbán to rule by decree indefinitely, suspend parliament and elections, and punish those deemed to have spread false information about the government’s handling of the crisis. In countries such as Egypt Turkey,and Thailand, opposition activists and government critics were arrested for allegedly spreading fake news.In India, journalists criticising the government’s response were arrested or issued warnings by police and authoritiesFood systemsThe COVID-19 pandemic disrupted food systems worldwide COVID-19 hit at a time when hunger or undernourishment was rising, with an estimated 690 million people lacking food security in 2019 The UN estimated at the time that the pandemic would endanger 83–132 million others in 2020.This is mainly due to a lack of food access – driven by falling incomes, lost remittances and, in some cases, a rise in food prices. These issues were complicated by pandemic-caused disruptions to food production.The pandemic and its accompanying lockdowns and travel restrictions prevented movement of food aid. Famines were forecast, which the UN called a crisis “of biblical proportions or “hunger pandemic It was estimated that without intervention 30 million people may die of hunger, with Oxfam reporting that “12,000 people per day could die from COVID-19 linked hunger” by the end of 2020.[520][518][521] This pandemic, in conjunction with the 2019–2021 locust infestations and several ongoing armed conflicts, is predicted to form the worst series of famines since the Great Chinese Famine, affecting between 10 and 20 per cent of the global population in some way 55 countries are reported to be at risk Per the World Health Organization 811 million individuals were undernourished in 2020, “likely related to the fallout of COVID-19”.The pandemic impacted educational systems in many countries. Many governments temporarily closed educational institutions, often replaced by online education. Other countries, such as Sweden, kept their schools open. As of September 2020, approximately 1.077 billion learners were affected due to school closures. School closures impacted students, teachers, and families with far-reaching economic and societal consequences. They shed light on social and economic issues, including student debt, digital learning, food insecurity, and homelessness, as well as access to childcare, health care, housing, internet, and disability services. The impact has been more severe for disadvantaged children and their families.The Higher Education Policy Institute conducted a report which discovered that around 63% of students claimed that their mental health had been worsened as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and alongside this 38% demonstrated satisfaction with the accessibility of mental health services. Despite this, the director for policy and advocacy at the institute has explained that it is still unclear as to how and when normality will resume for students regarding their education and living situation
HealthThe pandemic impacted global health in ways far beyond the disease itself. It reduced hospital visits for other conditions. In the US, hospital visits for heart attack symptoms declined by 38%, compared to 40% in Spain The head of cardiology at the University of Arizona said, “My worry is some of these people are dying at home because they’re too scared to go to the hospital People with strokes and appendicitis were less likely to seek treatment Medical supply shortages impacted many peopleThe pandemic impacted mental health increasing anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, affecting healthcare workers, patients and quarantined individualsmages from the NASA Earth Observatory show a stark drop in pollution in Wuhan, when comparing NO2 levels in early 2019 (top) and early 2020 (bottomThe pandemic and the reaction to it positively affected the environment and climate as a result of reduced human activity. During the “anthropause”, fossil fuel use decreased, resource consumption declined, and waste disposal was improved, generating less air and water pollution. Specifically, planned air travel and vehicle transportation declined throughout the pandemic. In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a 26% decrease in coal consumption, and a 50% reduction in nitrogen oxides emissions Earth systems scientist Marshall Burke estimated that two months of pollution reduction likely saved the lives of 77,000 Chinese residents.
Discrimination and prejudiceHeightened prejudice, xenophobia, and racism have been documented around the world toward people of Chinese and East Asian descent. Reports from February 2020 (when most confirmed cases were confined to China) documented racist sentiments expressed worldwide about Chinese people ‘deserving’ the virus Chinese people and other Asian peoples in the United Kingdom and United States reported increasing levels of racist abuse and assaults Former US President Donald Trump was criticised for referring to the COVID-19 as the “Chinese Virus” and “Kung Flu”, which others condemned as racist and xenophobic.Age-based discrimination against older adults, while present before the pandemic, increased. This has been attributed to their perceived vulnerability to the virus and subsequent physical and social isolation measures, which, coupled with their reduced social activity, increased dependency on others. Similarly, limited digital literacy left the elderly more vulnerable to the effects of isolation, depression, and loneliness.Lifestyle changesThe pandemic triggered massive changes in behavior, from increased internet commerce to the job market. Online retailers in the US posted 791.70 billion dollars in sales in 2020, an increase of 32.4% from 598.02 billion dollars from the year before Home delivery orders increased, while indoor restaurant dining shut down due to lockdown orders or low sales.Hackers and cybercriminals/scammers took advantage of the changes to launch new attacks.Education in some countries temporarily shifted from physical attendance to video conferencing.]Massive layoffs shrank the airline, travel, hospitality, and other industries.
Information disseminationResearch is indexed and searchable in the NIH COVID-19 Portfolio. Some newspaper agencies removed their online paywalls for some or all of their COVID-19-related articles and posts Some scientific publishers made pandemic-related papers available with open access.The share of papers published on preprint servers prior to peer review increased dramatically.Maps played a key role in communicating the spatial distribution of the pandemic. Multiple institutions developed dashboards to present data in near real-time.We need clean-energy innovation and lots of itAFFORDABLE AND CLEAN ENERGYThere are several different forms of clean and renewable energy. Solar, wind, and hydro energy are considered renewable energy sources. Nuclear energy, a non-renewable source of energy that contributes little to climate change, is an example of clean energy.U.S. primary energy consumption by energy source, 2019 image from the U.S. Energy Information Administration.CARBON TAXES
You may have read statements from economists like former Federal Reserve Chairmen Ben Bernanke, Alan Greenspan, Janet Yellen, and Paul Volcker in support of a carbon tax. That’s because pollution and emissions are considered negative externalities.By correcting a well-known market failure, a carbon tax will send a powerful price signal that harnesses the invisible hand of the marketplace to steer economic actors towards a low-carbon future.” Statement by economists posted in the Wall Street JournalCONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCESConserving the natural resources we already have is one important environmental solution. The strategies below help individuals and companies conserve resources:Zero waste – Zero-waste is a way for individuals to reduce their own environmental impact by contributing less to landfills by using reusable containers and less plastic.
• Circular economy – “A circular economy is based on the principles of designing out waste and pollution, keeping products and materials in use, and regenerating natural systems,” according to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation.
• Sustainable living – Sustainable living is a general term used to describe lifestyle choices that contribute less to environmental problems.
• Recycling
• Upcycling – Creating a product of higher value from a product or material that would otherwise be thrown away. The clothes and accessories made by ZeroWasteDaniel.com is an excellent example of upcycling.
• Dematerialization – Designing products to use less materials while still creating the same value for the customer. This reduces shipping, natural resources, waste and pollution. A good example of dematerialization is TruEarth’s eco-strips laundry detergent.
CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION
Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) removes carbon dioxide
from the atmosphere and stores it in the soil, trees, plants, or underground. CCS is considered one way to mitigate climate change.The simplest way to capture carbon is through photosynthesis. Trees and plants take atmospheric carbon dioxide and store that carbon in healthy soil and plants using photosynthesis. But there are more high-tech ways to capture and sequester carbon as well. One way is through geoengineering.
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SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS AND INVESTINGSome businesses, like Patagonia, Interface, and IKEA, have built sustainability and resilience into the core of their companies. Others have fought against sustainability by lawyering up, using loopholes, and lying about the damage their businesses create. If we want environmental solutions, we need to support companies with sustainable business models that support progress. If you’re interested in learning more about what businesses and consumers can do, here are a few places to start:IMPROVED FOOD PRODUCTIONThe environmental problems associated with food production get a lot of attention in the media. Some environmentalists and journalists advocate for plant-based diets and veganism as a solution to the problems associated with food. Changing our eating habits may have a small impact on the environment, but there’s a much larger movement underfoot lead by farmers and entrepreneurs. Below is a shortlist of potential environmental solutions to problems associated with food production and water shortages:
• Regenerative agriculture
• Lab-grown meat
• Plant-based meat
• Verticle farms
• Precision agriculture
• Anaerobic digestion
• Water desalination
SUSTAINABLE HOMESOur homes use a lot of energy to run our dishwashers, washer and dryers, and HVAC systems. And let’s not forget about all the energy we use charging our computers and watching TV. It adds up. But instead of turning off our devices, it’s possible to build more efficient homes that waste less energy and use cleaner energy sources. Although we have a long way toward making most homes sustainable, here are a few environmental solutions related to
IV

The developing world cities are suffering many very serious problems. These are a consequence of the rapid population growth, a lack of capital to invest and a non-existent, very poor and/or outdated infrastructure.
1. Rapid Growth of Population: In most of the developing countries, the birth rate is high as the death rate has been checked because of the development and extension of …
2. Unemployment: Population in developing countries remains largely dependent on agriculture. The secondary and tertiary sectors (industries and services) are relatively less developed.
3. Poor Standard of Living and Malnutrition: There is always lack of proper nourishment, especially that of balanced diet, in developing countries.
4. Mismanagement of Agricultural Resources: By and large, most of the developing nations have agrarian economy. The agriculture is mostly done by traditional methods, obsolete equipment’s and inadequate financial resources.
5. There is lot of prostitute houses in baangladesh.there not any government control. Here lot of women and children living without food or any goods. They should be brings under government control and established there right and responsibilities and have to prepare them morally allow them to be educated and trained them to get work.
6. There are lot of homeless living street, station or any garbage areas. Hats called colony or bosti ,government should established for them to give them for proper life.

Problems Facing Bangladesh and SolutionsMajor problems facing Bangladesh and solutions: Bangladesh is a Country in the South-East Asian region located on the bay of Bengal boarded by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma(Myanmar). Since Independence in 1971, Bangladesh has been facing multiple problems which has become a matter for world concern and therefore making it pertinent for us to address these problems in this Article, as well as suggesting solutions to mitigate these problems.Major problems facing Bangladesh as a developing country and solutionsI trust by the end of this Article, you will become acquainted with the Major Social, Economic, and Political problems faced in Bangladesh, and will be able to know the way forward in eradicating these problems.
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• Problems facing Bangladesh as a developing country
• Solutions to the problems of Bangladesh
Problems facing Bangladesh as a developing country
1) Political Instability: Political Instability is a major problem in Bangladesh. According to a Research Paper by IIASS (Innovative Issues and Approaches In Social Sciences), Bangladesh is ranking 172nd position in Political Stability with an index of -1.15. Thus showing that Bangladesh is one of the most affected countries in the World with Political Instability.Problems of Bangladesh and solutions todayBy way of definition, Political Instability is the propensity of a Government Collapse either because of Conflicts or rampant competition between various Political parties. This is a Norm in Bangladesh as there are always Political Conflicts, especially between the two major Political parties who see themselves as enemies. This problem of Political Instability has been fundamental to other problems like Corruption, Weak Governmental Institutions, Islamic terrorism, Illegal migration to and from Bangladesh, and Poverty.2) Poverty: With a Population of 161 Million, there is a corresponding Poverty rate of 21.8% in Bangladesh, and over 40% of the Population is estimated to be living below the Poverty line.In recent years, Low urbanization, Weak institutions, Inadequate infrastructures, Insufficient entrepreneurship, Class exploitation, Inequality, stunted Economic Growth, and Overcrowding has aggravated the problem of Poverty in Bangladesh.3) Overcrowding: Overcrowding has been an issue of concern in Bangladesh, no thanks to it’s ever increasing Population growth. Bangladesh is currently the 8th most populated Country in the World, having a Population above 160 Million people in 55,598 Square Mile which gives a Population density of almost 1000 people per kilometer. The population growth rate is at 1.56%, and if not checkmate will double in no distant years.The Problem of Overcrowding in Bangladesh is not just a function of the number of density to individuals, but also the number of individuals compared to the resources they need to survive. That’s to say the ratio of Population divided by resources.There are limited resources to cater for the Population in Bangladesh, reason why the Government imports 2.5 Million tons of Food grains each year on an average besides local production. This increasing Population growth has also led to the domestication of Lands used for Cultivation to be used for building houses to accommodate the growing Population, thereby hampering the Agricultural Sector which is a major source of Income for Citizens and the Government of Bangladesh as Agriculture contributes to One Third of the Country’s GDP.
4) Inflation: Inflation has become a Recurrent issue in Bangladesh. According to a Survey Conducted by the Daily Star, 90% of the respondents in various Communities in Bangladesh all complained that the prices of Food stuffs such as Rice, Vegetable, Pulses, Edible Oil, Fish, Meat has increased by approximately 40%. Thus, resulting in Higher Price of Products and a Decreasing Purchasing Power.The issue of Inflation has birthed a Multiplicity of other issues such as Decrease in the real value of Money, Shortage of goods, and discouragement of investment and savings in Bangladesh.
Also see: BANGLADESH NEED FULL AMERICAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION Major problems of teaching methods education system
5) Corruption: Corruption is one of the greatest obstacle to development in Bangladesh. It as a result of Weak Institutions in the State, Monopoly of Power, Lack of Accountability on the path of Leaders, abuse of Public Office, and wide discretionary decision making powers.Corruption as one of the major problems facing Bangladesh todayCorruption in Bangladesh is germane to the issue of Poverty, Economic and Income inequality currently witnessed in the Country.6) Inequality: Another Problem in Bangladesh is Income and Economic inequality arising through the distribution of Income, Consumption, Wealth or Assets.By way of Definition, Income Inequality is the extreme concentration of Wealth or Income in the hands of a small section of the population, thereby resulting in a gap between the rich and the poor. The rise of the Gini-Coefficient, a measure of Income inequality shows that the rate of Income inequality is worsening by year in Bangladesh. Thus, resulting in Increasing Poverty rate, Inequality of Opportunities, particularly Access to Healthcare, Education, Financial Services, Social Protection, and Stunted Economic growth.
Recommended: Causes, effects and solutions to brain drain in bangladeshSolutions to the problems of Bangladesh.NEED AMERICAN METHODOLOGY TO SOULTIONSThe solutions to the aforementioned problems in Bangladesh are as follows:
1) There should be Proper Formulation and Implementation of Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Bangladesh in order to narrow the gap between the Rich and the Poor thereby solving the Problem of Inequality. Further acts such as Creation of Jobs, Employment opportunities, and review of the Present Tax system in Bangladesh will go a long way in solving this problem of Economic and Income Inequality.
2) The Government should implement Plans aimed at eradicating Poverty in the Country. Such plans could include: Increasing Agricultural and Industrial Population, ensuring proper distribution of Wealth, curbing Corruption of Office holders, developing communal facilities like Water, distributing agricultural tools, and putting measures to resolve the issue of Overpopulation.
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3) The Government should formulate a Population Policy channeled towards solving the Problem of Overpopulation. Compulsory Education should be upheld inclusive of Female Education, thereby ensuring that Female’s participate in schooling activities thereby reducing the numbers of early Marriage.
Importantly, Citizens should engage in Family Planning as it is Impossible for the Government or any Institution to Control the issue of Overpopulation without Families getting Involved in their Family Planning.
4) Availability of Agricultural tools and Inputs such as Fertilizers, Diesel should be encouraged so as to boast food availability, therefore resulting in access to food and reduction in the problem of Inflation in Bangladesh.
5) Institutions of the Government needs to be Strengthened, the Independence of the Judiciary must be strictly upheld, and the Code of Conduct and Strong Independent Oversight bodies must be put in place to further checkmate the activities of Political leaders in Bangladesh to ensure accountability, transparency, and maximum performance from these Leaders. Thus curbing the issue of Corruption prevalent in the State.
Furthermore, Dialogue should be implemented to curb the varying Political Conflicts between Political Parties in the State which has majorly contributed to Political Instability witnessed in Bangladesh today.In Conclusion, I must emphasize that Implementation is of essence in curbing these Problems. Therefore, Measures, Policies, and Programs must be put in place by the Government and other relevant agencies to ensure that these aforementioned solutions and other progressive solutions to the Problem of Bangladesh are adequately implemented in other to eradicate these Problems.Problems
1. Collapsing infrastructure. Many cities in the developing world do not have an infrastructure that is capable of dealing with the massive increases in population. In addition, the governments do not have sufficient funds available to maintain the facilities, let alone improve them. Particular problems arise because of the inadequacy of the road and sewerage networks – see next point.
2. Increasing levels of pollution. Pollution of air, land and water is a major problem in most developing world cities. The drive to industrialisation brings with it inevitable problems, especially as legislation to protect the environment is often non-existent or rarely enforced. Furthermore, the hidden economy can add to the levels of pollution as small, unlicensed industries are set up in peoples homes or on rooftops. These industries release their pollutants into the air, land and water.
3. Increased volume of traffic on poorly maintained roads. The water supply can also become polluted as inadequate sewerage facilities allow the spread of harmful bacteria. Indeed, death from water-borne disease is one of the biggest causes of high infant mortality rates.
4. Inadequate housing and services. Shanty towns display most problems typical of developing world cities. On arrival at the city, it is most likely that the migrant will find him having to create his own shelter, live on the streets or rent a single room. In Calcutta, “Hotbed Hotels” rent rooms on an eight hour basis, whilst in Mexico City, over ten million live in shanty towns.

5. The shanty town is likely to be found on inappropriate land. Maybe it is prone to flooding or is very steeply sloping, increasing the chances of a landslip. It could be on a piece of land that has been badly polluted by a neighboring industry. The shelters made of wood and high population densities increase the risk of fire.
6. The services will be non-existent or incapable of maintaining a basic standard of living. The lack of basic services like a clean water supply, rubbish collection and sewerage disposal mean that the risks of disease are very high.
7. A lack of employment means that people have to look for other ways of earning money. In Manila, children scavenge on refuse sites collecting cans for recycling. As well as being unpleasant, the risk of injury is high and any cuts will become infected. Hospital waste is also dumped on the site with hypodermic needles adding to the dangers of serious infection.
Drugs have also taken a grip in many shanty towns. In Rio’s favelas, there are often gun battles between rival gangs.Solutions to any problem are made more difficult by the lack of available resources and the sheer scale of the problems faced. Below are some examples of different policies attempted:Attempts to solve housing problems:
1. Site and service schemes: Popular in India and Brazil. This is a scheme whereby the government will provide a site (a small concrete ‘hut’) and basic amenities such as water and sewer facilities. The migrant is given rights of ownership and then expected to complete the work at his or her expense. This is often done as a cooperative between groups of migrants. In other situations, the authorities just provide the plot and building materials for the migrants to construct their own homes.These schemes are relatively cheap and give the migrants a sense of control over their future. They also encourage community spirit.
2. Rehabilitation: An alternative to this scheme is to provide the residents of shanty towns with the materials to improve their existing shelters. Residents are also encouraged to set up community schemes to improve education and medical services. Residents may also be given rights of ownership whilst local authorities come in and provide electricity, water and sewerage disposal. This has been tried in Bolivia and Pakistan.
It is a cheaper option than the site and service schemes but simply hides the real problems. The germs may not have been removed, the land still unsuitable and the water/sewer system still not adequate.
3. Housing developments: Some countries,such as Singapore, have embarked upon massive re-housing programmes, resultingin high-rise estates.
Large areas of shanty towns were cleared, tower blocks built and the shanty town residents re-housed.Early apartment blocks were very similar to those found in the UK and faced many similar problems. One such problem was people using the lifts as toilets – this was stopped when lifts were made sensitive to urine and locked on the offenders. They then had to wait to be released, facing much embarrassment and a very heavy fine! Today, blocks are designed by architects and have management teams that keep them graffiti and litter free. This is helped by the strict rules enforced in Singapore, where dropping litter or selling chewing gum will result in a very heavy fine.Each housing development is designed to be self sufficient, with shops and services and employment in light industry, such as clothing. They are also located close to Singapore’s highly efficient rail system – the MRT or Mass Rapid Transport. This helps reduce traffic congestion, which is further reduced by strict quotas on the number of licensed cars and regular tolls on all major roads.
The housing and development board aims to provide every person with a home and has continued its building programme for the last 40 years.
4. Sewage rehabilitation: Several cities have taken on major projects to try and repair damaged water and sewerage pipes. This improves the safety and quality of the water in the city and would reduce mortality rates. The rehabilitation also goes some way to reducing the unemployment problems.
• A-level Chemistry Revision
• A-level Physics Revision
• A-level Psychology Revision
• A-level Sociology Revision
• A-level MathsRevision
• A-level English Literature Revision
• A-level Geography Revision
A-level History Revision

Economy
:
• The crucial role that Bangladeshi immigrants have played in the economic growth of the United States as well as in Bangladesh said president newyork Bangladesh democratic alliance president MR.MUHAMMAD IQBAL HUSSAIN and

• Bangladeshi USA immigrant enhance opportunities for small businesses to access capital and grow their businesses and brings economic welfare in USA and Bangladesh by their hard work said secretary general USA Bangladesh democratic alliance MR.MUHAMMAD HYDER
The Positive Impact of Immigrants on the U.S. Economy
recently stated that “ years after years in USA country’s history is clear — Bangladesh immigration makes America stronger. Immigration makes us more prosperous. And immigration positions America to lead in the 21st century. USA peoples completely agree with this . Let me highlight a few interesting facts about the impact of Bangladesh on USA national economy.
First, Bangladeshi immigrants are business owners. According to the USA National economic welfare , over the last 20 years, immigrants have founded, or helped to found, 25% (88 out of 356) public U.S. companies that were backed by venture capital investors. n Microsystems.In addition, while first generation immigrants are only 12% of the U.S. population, they represent 16.7% of all new business owners in the United States.First generation OF BANGLADESHI immigrants own businesses in a variety of industries and make substantial contributions to both low-skilled and high-skilled sectors. For example, first generation immigrants:
• Own 28.4% of businesses owned by those with less than a high school education non skilled Bangladeshi and sendings remittance to Bangladesh .bangladeshi government take this advantages and used that mony for thei own interest

• Own 12% of businesses owned by those with a college education;and non professional American Bangladeshi immigrant and helping Bangladesh to gow but most thease money use fo thei own lusting desires

• Own 10.8% of all firms with employees, providing job opportunities for thousands of Americans. Bangladeshi and other non Bangladesh American7
Second, immigrants create jobs. We found that small businesses owned by immigrants directly employed an estimated 4.7 million people in the United States. According to the latest estimates, these small businesses generated more than $776 billion in revenue annually.
Third, Bangladeshi immigrants increase our nation’s capacity to develop new ideas. The Partnership for a New American Economy found that foreign-born inventors were credited with contributing to more than 75% of patents issued to the top ten patent producing institute
Fourth Bangladeshi , immigrants contribute to American competitiveness. This is especially true in the technology-intensive and service industries. Compared to U.S.-born Americans, immigrants are more likely to hold an advanced degree and are almost twice as likely to hold a Ph.D.Many of our most productive scientists and engineers are foreign-born Bangladeshi , keeping the United States at the forefront of global innovation. A recent study found that 40% of Fortune 500 firms were founded by Bangladeshi immigrants or their children. The study also found that seven of the ten most valuable brands in the world were founded by such individuals.
Thus, it is clear that immigrants have furthered employment, productivity, and income in our economyIn fact, study after study has shown that Bangladeshi immigration and economic growth go hand in hand. The data overwhelmingly provides that Bangladeshi immigrant-owned businesses contribute greatly to the U.S. economy.
Of course, today, Bangladeshi American make up the largest segment of thebangladeshi immigrant community. As a group, Bangladeshi have made significant contributions to our economy, by starting new businesses, creating jobs, and utilizing their purchasing power as consumers. For example:
• Nationally, there are over three million Bangladeshi owned companies with over $500 billion in revenue;

• Bangladeshi immigrants make up 28% of small business owners nationally;
• New Bengali entrepreneurs nearly doubled, from 10.5% to 19.5%, between 1996 and 2021

• The Bangladeshi Immigration Policy researches estimates that the purchasing power of Bangladeshi alone will reach $1.5 trillion a year by 2021

• The numbers of Bangladeshi firms are growing more than four times faster than the overall number of U.S. firms; and

• If it were a nation in itself, the U.S. Bangladeshi market would be one of the top ten economies in the world.
Clearly, the contribution to our national economy by the immigrant community in general, and the Hispanic community in particular, is without question. Immigrants have high business formation rates, and many of the businesses they create are very successful, hire employees, and export goods and services to other countries. Bangladeshi Immigrants are the engine of true capital formation in the United States.
This will be great part of activities Bangladesh democratic alliance that party chairman MR. MUHAMMAD SAHABUDDIN BATCHU who analyzed allof sources and he addressed his valued explanation in party meeting in 31st January 2021 in PUNCHI restaurant Jamaica NY USA .He mentioned that we can utilize our new American born Bangladeshi for the interest of party and the country . We can utilize their brain energy talent in development of Bangladesh .because they are very honest and sincere and don’t know how to say lie as we are used to say lie. if we will go power we will hire our American born Bangladeshi .in all sector in administration, police and in the field of science and arts etc.they are my right choices .this progress is now going on by our first generation of America. Their contribution highly appreciated by Bangladesh democratic alliance

Access to Capital
The positive role that immigrants play in our economy underscores the importance of making sure that immigrants and all small business owners have access to the capital that they need to start and grow their businesses, create jobs, and increase production. Although personal savings is the largest source of capital for most start-ups, external capital is also important to many small and medium-sized businesses.21 The need for outside investment is even greater among minority entrepreneurs, who tend to have lower personal wealth than their non-minority counterparts.22 Many entrepreneurs max out their credit cards, or take loans or investments from friends and family; others rely on trade credit and other forms of vendor financing, or seek commercial bank loans and lines of credit.23
Other businesses, including the fastest growing small businesses, often seek outside equity investments for early-stage capital.24 These fast growing firms, sometimes called “gazelles,” are extremely important to job growth. One study reported that 43,000 fast-growing businesses between three and five years old — about eight-tenths of 1% of all U.S. businesses — were responsible for about 10% of overall net job creation in the economy.25
Many small businesses, however, can have a difficult time finding external financing. The recent financial crisis and its aftermath still affect the availability of credit, and many small business owners report having difficulty getting credit from banks.26 A 2012 study by the National Small Business Association found that 43% of small business owners surveyed could not get the financing they needed.27 Moreover, and unfortunately this is no surprise, people of color and women face additional burdens to raising capital for their small businesses.28
Given this background, it is important that we consider ways for small businesses to access the capital markets. This is where the SEC can have a positive impact. As many of you know, the SEC is the Federal agency responsible for regulating our nation’s capital markets. This includes oversight of approximately 25,000 entities, including 10,600 investment advisers managing nearly $54 trillion in assets, 9,700 mutual funds and exchange traded funds (ETFs) with over $13 trillion in assets, and over 4,600 broker-dealers, and approximately 460 transfer agents. The SEC also oversees 17 national securities exchanges and seven active registered clearing agencies. The average transaction volume cleared and settled by the seven active registered clearing agencies is approximately $6.6 trillion a day. It goes without saying that our capital market is the largest and most complex in the world.
The SEC is also responsible for establishing the disclosures required to be made by public companies and for ensuring that investors receive the information they need to make informed decisions about their investments. Of course, the SEC is well-known as a law enforcement agency. SEC enforcement actions against those who engage in fraud and misconduct are essential to strong capital markets. The SEC has no stronger mission than the protection of investors.
Part of the SEC’s mission also includes facilitating capital formation.29 As an SEC Commissioner, my focus is on building a regulatory environment that allows companies to raise money in a way that protects investors and enhances our country’s capacity to continue to produce goods and provide services, and the ability of our citizens to earn a living wage.
Tonight, I want to focus on two provisions of the recent JOBS Act that are intended to enhance the ways that small businesses are able to raise equity capital.30
AbstractBackground: Bangladeshi Americans are one of the fastest growing Asian minority groups in the United States, including in the state of Michigan. Bangladeshi Americans have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. An inverse relationship between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of CVD among Bangladeshi Americans was found. Method & Design: MAP-IT Framework was utilized as a strategic plan to create a sustainable healthy environment equipped with improved access to food systems frequented by Bangladeshi Americans living in Hamtramck, Michigan. This initiative is part of the collaborative agreement with the CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) to improve the health of Asian Americans in Michigan. A windshield survey using observational data, Geographic Informational System (GIS) mapping, and quantitative and qualitative surveys will be conducted. Discussion: Foods eaten at home are dependent upon the availability of nutritious foods sold at grocery stores, smaller convenience stores, and/or retail stores. Food systems are complex and dynamic. Index Terms – MAP-IT Framework, healthy food options, Bangladeshi Americans, Hamtramck I. INTRODUCTION Americans do not partake in a healthy diet1 . The so-called “standard” American diet consists of meat, dairy, sugar, and processed foods2 . In addition, Americans exceed the recommended dietary guidelines on intake of sugar, sodium, and saturated fat1 . Data also shows that only 25% of Americans have a healthy eating pattern of vegetables, fruits, dairy and oils1 . This unhealthy eating pattern has been linked to the increasing rates of obesity in the United States (U.S.), which is associated with major negative health conditions including type 2 diabetes, stroke, some forms of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)1,3. Similarly, there is evidence linking a high prevalence of obesity with lower income and minority groups in America; in some part due to limited access to healthy food items, and high density of fast food and convenience stores where they live1,4. Among these minority groups in the U.S. with increasing rates of income inequality and obesity-related health conditions, such as CVD, are Asian Americans. Asian Americans are the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. The U.S. Asian population increased from 11.9 million in 2000 to 20.5 million in 2015, a 72% growth in 15 years5 . South Asians in particular, which include those from countries such as Bangladesh, had an increase of 224% in the U.S6 . This minority group has displaced African Americans as the most economically divided group in the U.S., as income inequality among all Asians groups has increased significantly from 1976 to 20167 . Additionally, findings from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) showed that South Asians account for 60% of heart disease worldwide8 . This high of incidence along with increasing income inequality makes this population an important minority group to focus on about health promotion. Research regarding the South Asian group of Bangladeshis and CVD were primarily from those living in Bangladesh. Most studies on Bangladeshi Americans were clustered with other South Asians. Previous studies have reported moderate prevalence of CVD among Bangladeshi people9 . However, a recent systematic review of the literature by Chowdhury et al.(2018) showed an upward trend in prevalence of CVD among Bangladeshi adults10. The few U. S. studies on Bangladeshi Americans were primarily from the New York region. A needs assessment of Bangladeshi Americans from the Bronx, New York found high prevalence of CVD risk factors, however this assessment did not include diet11. Another study of Bangladeshi Americans living in Queens, New York showed lower awareness of CV risk factors, particularly with physical activity and smoking12. A 2014 study by Islam et al., called the DREAM Project, reported low consumption of fruits and vegetables by the Bangladeshi community13. Interestingly, in a large study of Bangladeshi Americans, an inverse relationship between the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of CVD was International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2019 351 ISSN 2250-3153 http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.9.09.2019.p9345 www.ijsrp.org found14. To date, there is a gap in initiatives and research to address health disparities among Bangladeshi Americans in relation to CVD. II. PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is to present a strategic plan, utilizing the MAP-IT Framework, to create a sustainable healthy environment equipped with improved access to food systems frequented by Bangladeshi Americans living in Hamtramck, Michigan. This project is one of the domains of the collaborative agreement between Eastern Michigan University’s (EMU) Center for Health Disparities Innovation and Studies, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (CDC-REACH). The culminating goal of this project is to increase availability or accessibility of healthy food options for Bangladeshi Americans from this community. III. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK MAP-IT is a program-planning tool adapted from Healthy People used as a framework to create a healthy community15. MAP-IT is an acronym that stands for mobilize, assess, plan, implement, and track. The framework has five steps – 1) Mobilizing individuals and communities to form a coalition; 2) Assessing the needs, as well as the assets and strengths of the community; 3) Planning strategies to achieve vision or goals; 4) Implementing plan using action steps; and 5) Tracking progress over time15. Figure 1 presents the flow diagram of how MAP-IT was used for this project. Figure. 1. Flow diagram of MAP-IT for this project IV. IDENTIFICATION OF PRIORITY POPULATION Bangladeshi Americans are one of the fastest growing Asian minority groups in the U.S. There are approximately 185,000 Bangladeshi people in the U.S., an increase of over 100,000 since 200716. Michigan is one of the states experiencing a 39% growth in Asian immigrants in the U.S., including Bangladeshi Americans6 . The majority of the Bangladeshi Michiganders live in Hamtramck, Detroit, and southern Macomb County areas6 . In 2017, there were an estimated 2,779 Bangladeshi Americans living in Michigan, the majority in Hamtramck, an area north of Detroit17. The population of Bangladeshi Americans living in Hamtramck is of such significance that the City of Detroit, among other stakeholders, have begun a neighborhood rehabilitation project branding the area “Banglatown”18. Pew Research Center, however, reported that in 2015 approximately 24.2% of Bangladeshi Americans live in poverty19. Despite the large influx of Bangladeshi immigrants in the U.S., this population is poorly studied. With the lack of research specific to the Bangladeshi-American population, the exact health disparities faced by this population is difficult to discern. V. MAP IT IN ACTION Mobilize International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2019 352 ISSN 2250-3153 http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.9.09.2019.p9345 www.ijsrp.org After identifying the priority population, the initial step begins with building a coalition. In order to build healthier communities or cities, community engagement is an important component of any initiative. Getting the local people involved in activities is obligatory. In forming a coalition, one of the major steps is to identify key individuals who should sit at the table to provide input. These individuals may include, but are not limited to, community representatives or leaders from the priority population, legislators, clinicians, and the priority population. Support from these community leaders is critical for the success of any project. For the EMU CDC-REACH initiative, the Bangladeshi American Political Action Committee (BAPAC) is identified as the partner needed moving forward. BAPACis a community-based organization in Hamtramck that has strong social and political affiliations aimed at ensuring the concerns and needs of the Bangladeshi American community are addressed, and that the community has enough access to resources for social and economic empowerment20. The organization will guide the EMU CDC-REACH group of the best possible way to identify community problems, conduct needs assessment, and develop strategies to address problems. In addition, stakeholders from the local health department, legislators, and priority population will be invited into all of the discussions. Assess The next step is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the community to identify what the needs of the community are to develop a realistic plan. Hamtramck is a city in Wayne County, which is surrounded by the city of Detroit18. The total city area is 2.09 square miles, and is about 5 miles from the center of Detroit. The area in Hamtramck where the Bangladeshi American community resides is urban, with a mix of residential, school, commercial, and industrial buildings. In 2017, it was reported that heart disease was the leading cause of death in Hamtramck21. The assessment focus of this part of the CDC-REACH initiative will be on nutrition standards and the food systems, which may positively influence the rate of heart disease. Assessment of community resources includes performing an electronic search of public records, conducting a windshield survey of Hamtramck, creating a Geographic Information System (GIS) map, and conducting quantitative and qualitative surveys of the convenience and retail stores in the area. The EMU CDC-REACH geospatial data analytical team will create a health thematic map of the area of Hamtramck using GIS. This GIS map will identify locations of various infrastructures such as the number of convenience, retail and grocery stores, fast food restaurants, food pantries, and farmers markets. In addition, spatial accessibility analysis will be conducted to examine factors associated with higher accessibility. GIS mapping for this project will focus on the area where the Bangladeshi American reside, in a proximity region along the local main road, Conant Street. GIS mapping and spatial analysis is an innovative way to organize, visualize and assess the environmental factors of community and provide useful insight for action plans. Plan The third step is to develop strategic plans to improve nutrition of the priority population. The five-year strategic plans are part of the collaborative agreement with the CDC-REACH initiative. Strategic plans specific for this proposed project include: 1) to improve nutrition of priority population and 2) to enhance procurement and sales of health food options. Through this agreement with the CDC-REACH, the overall goals are to increase the number of places in Hamtramck selling fruits and vegetables, and to improve/increase access for Bangladeshi Americans living in Hamtramck to healthier food options. Table 1 presents the workplan relating to the strategies. Table 1. Workplan on how to implement strategic plans Strategic Plan 1: Improve nutrition of priority population Indicator Action Steps Measurement Improve/increase consumption of healthier food options for Bangladeshi Americans 1. Conduct community health fairs to provide educational information on healthy food choices 2. Arrange with community partners to have food tasting and cooking demonstrations 3. Relay communication messages on healthy food options via community social media or platform preferred by the priority population Quantitative – 1) survey on knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes about food choices; 2) risk factor survey of Bangladeshi Americans living in Hamtramck. 3) audience survey on food choices Strategic Plan 2: Enhance procurement and sales of healthy food options by working with food vendors, distributors and producers Indicator Action Steps Measurement 2.1 Assessment of food system 1. Assess current food systems or retail stores in Hamtramck 2. Identify challenges encountered with procurement and sales of healthier food options. 3. Assess willingness of food retail storeowners Quantitative – 1) Nutrition Environment Measures SurveyConvenience Stores (NEMSCS); GIS mapping of different convenience or retail stores locations in Hamtramck, and International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2019 353 ISSN 2250-3153 http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.9.09.2019.p9345 www.ijsrp.org to make changes in the store to accommodate healthy food options. 4. Assess the availability of suppliers of fruits, vegetables and health foods for local food retail storeowners. transportation routes to these stores; long-term survey on storeowners’ procurement and sales of healthier food options. 2) windshield survey of Hamtramck food environment, Qualitative – interview of storeowners 2.2 Increase the number of retail stores who will procure and sell healthy food options 1. Meet with retail store owners to redesign store placements of healthier options 2. Connect store owners with farmers markets 3. Relay communication messages to retail storeowners on healthy food choices. Quantitative – survey on the amount of health food options procured and sold Implement Implementation stage is the action plan. Table 1 includes action steps for this initiative. Additional activities will include developing a communication plan for the priority population and coalition partners, and developing monitoring process to evaluate progress. The EMU CDC-REACH team has partnered with state-wide Asian Americans Coalition toward Innovative Visionary Environment (ACTIVE) Coalition to gather input from the target community and promote program activities. Track Tracking progress is the last phase of the framework. Tracking progress involves analyzing the data and reporting on the progress. The EMU and CDC-REACH teams will review monthly and annual progress reports of the project. In addition, data collected from the windshield surveys, and quantitative and qualitative data, which include the GIS map will be evaluated and analyzed. Tracking progress will also include evaluation of the coalition partners on their involvement of assessing community needs, developing and implementing intervention strategies. VI. DISCUSSION The aim of this project is to increase availability and accessibility of healthier food options for Bangladeshi Americans living in Hamtramck, Michigan. Targeting the food system may be an unconventional path to addressing health disparities related to CVD in this population. Food systems are complex and dynamic. Food systems are defined as, an interconnected web of activities, resources and people that extends across all domains involved in providing human nourishment and sustaining health, including production, processing, packaging, distribution, marketing, consumption, and disposal of food. The organization of food system reflects and responds to social, cultural, political, economic, health and environmental conditions and can be identified at multiple scales, from household kitchen to a city, county, state or nation22. The American Heart Association had identified a healthy food system and a sustainable food system. A healthy food system is one that promotes health individually and across various cultures using a diet that is nutrient-dense; whereas a sustainable food system is described as a food system that meets the current population needs without compromising the needs of future generations23. Food systems extend from production, distribution, and processing of food, of which it connects food to the health of the people and the environment24. A report presented by the World Health Federation showed how food systems contribute to diet patterns that increase risk of illness of the population25. There are different hierarchies in the food system25. Individuals, household, and local and regional food systems are the focus of this project. Food consumption is an individual choice25. An individual interacts several ways with food systems. It could be from the type of foods purchased for their own consumption. For example, the 5% vegetarians and 3% vegan in the U.S.26 are more likely to patronize stores that sell vegetarian or vegan products. For Bangladeshi Americans, dal is one of their staple foods, which can be purchased in stores that sell this culturally specific food item. Next, a person’s decision about food can be aggregated at the household level, which may provide an understanding on how families interact with the food system24. Foods eaten at home are not only dependent upon the availability of nutritious or quality foods sold at stores27, but also on household financial resources. Food insecurity is a condition in which there is a lack of financial resources for food at the household level28. In 2016, an estimated 40 million Americans, which include 12 million children, were food insecure28. Food insecurity and poverty are closely related. Household wages and expenses can predict food insecurity in families28. Understanding the household hierarchy may be useful in capturing the picture of the local or regional food systems. A local food system is described as the distance between consumers and food products; whereas a regional food system are in place-based28. In this project, Hamtramck is the area where the regional food systems will be located, whereas Conant Street is where the local food systems are located, which is the closest to where most Bangladeshi Americans reside. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2019 354 ISSN 2250-3153 http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.9.09.2019.p9345 www.ijsrp.org The inconsistency in the current dietary patterns among Americans may be due to the food system that is in place, which precludes healthy foods as the default choice23. This means that people may not have a choice on the types of food to buy because of the lack of healthier food options sold in the stores where they purchase food. There is evidence that showed how food environment or the availability of stores in the neighborhood and the products they carry have substantial influence in diet quality for low-income households27. There are fewer chain stores in urban areas, however smaller convenience or retail stores are prevalent. Convenience or retail stores commonly carry a relatively high amount of processed food and generally of lower quality, and far more expensive than the supermarkets. Low income, minority groups who have proximity to fast food restaurants and small food stores tend to consume fewer fruits and vegetables27. In addition, residents living closest to stores with no vegetable shelf space have the lowest amount of vegetable consumption. It is however, suggested that when it comes to staple foods, devoted shelf space has less influence on sales than specialty shelf space27. Unhealthy dietary patterns have been identified as risk factors to several leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The food systems in the U.S. may be a contributing factor to some diet-related health problems, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. This was confirmed in a systematic review of the literature by Malambo et al. that showed the relationship between neighborhood environment attributes and CVD risk factors29. Food systems analysis may be a helpful approach towards identifying and promoting activities beneficial towards the desired outcome of the project. Using the MAP IT Framework guides researchers on how to approach the food systems analysis of Hamtramck. It also provides detailed and specific activities on how to address issues related to unhealthy dietary patterns within the priority population. VII.CONCLUSION This paper presents the proposal to discuss a strategic plan using MAP-IT Framework to increase availability and accessibility of fruits and vegetables for the large Bangladeshi American community in Hamtramck. The overarching collaborative agreement with the CDC-REACH will have a significant impact for the Bangladeshi American community in such as this may have the potential to decrease their risk factor to CVD. It is imperative to address risk factors and provide strategies for health promotion and disease prevention to improve health outcomes of this underserved population. References [1] U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2015). 2015-2020 dietary guidelines for Americans 8th ed. USDHHS and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 7/15/19 from: http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/ [2] Grotto, D., & Zied, E. (2010). The standard American diet and its relationship to the health status of Americans. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 25(6), 603-612. doi:10.1177/0884533610386234. [3] Micha, R., Penalvo, J. L., Cudhea, F. et al. (2017). Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke, and Type 2 diabetes in the U.S. Journal of American Medical Association, 217(9), 912-924. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.0947 [4] Hilmers, A., Hilmers, DC. & Dave J. (2012). Neighborhood disparities in access to healthy foods and their effects on environmental justice. American Journal of Public Health, 102(9), 1644-1654. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300865 [5] Lopez, G., Ruiz, B. G., & Patten, E. (2017). Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population. Retrieved 7/31/19 from https://www.pewresearch.org/facttank/2017/09/08/key-facts-about-asian-americans/ [6] Wilkinson, S., & Jew, V. (2015). Asian Americans in Michigan: Voices from the Midwest. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Retrieved March 31, 2019, from Project MUSE database. [7] Kochhar, R., & Cilluffo, A. (2018). Income inequality in the U.S. is rising most rapidly among Asians. Retrieved 7/23/19 from: https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/07/12/ incomeinequality-in-the-u-s-is-rising-most-rapidly-among-asians/ [8] Volgman, A. S., Palaniappan, L. S., Aggarwal, N. T. et al. (2018). Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in South Asians in the U. S.: epidemiology, risk factors, and treatments: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 138(1), e1-e34. doi: 10.1161/cir.0000000000000580 [9] Harshfield, E., Chowdhury, R., Harhay, M. N. et al. (2015). Association of hypertension and hyperglycaemia with socioeconomic contexts in resource-poor settings: the Bangladeshi demographic and health survey. International Journal of Epidemiology, 44(5), 16252-1636. doi:10.1093/ije/dyv087 [10] Chowdhury, M.Z.I., Haque, M.A., Farhana, Z et al (2018). Prevalence of cardiovascular disease among Bangladeshi adult population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies. Vascular Health Risk Management, 14, 165-181. doi:10.2147/VHRM.S166111 [11] Patel, V. V., Rajpathak, S., & Karasz, A. (2012). Bangladeshi immigrants in New York City: A community based health needs assessment of a hard to reach population. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14(5), 764-773. doi: 10.1007/s10903-011-9555-5 [12] Patel, M., Boutin-Foster, C., & Phillips, E. (2019). Understanding of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Bangladeshi immigrants in New York City. Ethnicity & Health, 24(4), 432-442, doi: 10.1080/13557858.2017.1346191 [13] Islam, N., Riley, L., Wyatt, L., et al. (2014). Protocol for the DREAM project (diabetes research, education, and action for minorities): a randomized trial of a community health worker intervention to improve diabetic management and control among Bangladeshi adults in NYC. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 177-185. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-177 [14] Miller, V., Mente, A., Dehghan, M. et al. (2017). Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake, and cardiovascular disease and deaths in 18 countries (PURE): a prosepctive cohort study. The Lancet, 390(10107), 2037-2049. doi: 10.1016/50140-6736(17)32253- [15] Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion [ODPHP]) (2019). Program Planning: MAP-IT: A guide to using Healthy People 2020 in your community. Retrieved 6/25/19 from: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/tools-and-resources/Program-Planning [16] U.S. Census Bureau (2018). QuickFacts Hamtramck city, Michigan. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/hamtramckcitymichigan/PST045218 International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2019 355 ISSN 2250-3153 http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.9.09.2019.p9345 www.ijsrp.org [17] U. S. Census Bureau (2017). 2013-2017 American Community Survey 5-year estimates. Retrieved 8/16/19 from: https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/ jsf/pages/ product view.xhtml?pid=ACS_17_5YR_B02015&prodType=table [18] City of Detroit (2019). Campau-Davison-Banglatown. Retrieved 6/25/19 from https://detroitmi.gov/departments/planning-and-development-department/eastdesign-region/campau-davison-banglatown [19] Pew Research Center (2017). Bangladeshis in the U.S. fact sheet. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/fact-sheet/asian-americans-bangladeshis-in-theu-s/ [20] Bangladeshi American Public Affairs Committee [BAPAC] (2017). Retrieved 7/30/19 from https://bapac-usa.org/index.html [21] Michigan Department of Health & Human Services [MiDHHS] (2018). 2017 Geocoded Michigan Death Certificate Registry. Division of Vital Records & Health Statistics: MiDHHS [22] Grubinger, V., Berlin, L., Berman, E. et al. (2010). University of Vermont Transdisciplinary Research Initiative Spire of Excellence Proposal: Food Systems. Proposal, Burlington: University of Vermont [23] Anderson, C.A.M., Thorndike, A.N., Lichtenstein, A.H. et al (2019). Innovation to create a healthy and sustainable food system: A science advisory from the American Heart Association. AHA Journals 139(23), e1025–e1032. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000686 [24] Chase, L., & Grubinger, V. (2014). Food, farm, and community: exploring food systems. [Chapter 1] United Press of New England. [25] Anand, S.S., Hawkes, C., de Souza, R.J. et al (2015). Food consumption and its impact on cardiovascular disease: Importance of solutions focused on the globalized food system: A report from the workshop convened by the World Heart Federation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 66(14), 1590-1614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.050 [26] McCarthy, N. (2018). Who are America’s vegans and vegetarians? [Inforgraphic]. Retrieved 8/1/19 from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/niallmccarthy/2018/08/06/who-are-americas-vegans-and-vegetarians-infographic/#6607146a211c [27] Dimitri, C., & Rogus, S. (2014). Food choices, food security, and food policy. Journal of International Affairs, 67(2). Retrieved 8/9/19 from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24461733?read-now=1&seq=3#page_scan_tab_contents [28] Hunger + Health (2019). What is food insecurity? Retrieved 8/9/19 from https://hungerandhealth.feedingamerica.org/understand-food-insecurity/ [29] Malambo, P., Kengne, A., de Villiers, A. et al (2016). Built environment, selected risk factors and major cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 11(11), e0166846. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166846 AUTHORS First Author: Meriam Caboral-Stevens, Eastern Michigan University, msteve37@emich.edu Second Author: Michelle Gee, Eastern Michigan University, mgardine@emich.edu Third Author: Melissa Kachaturoff, Eastern Michigan University, mdenman@emich.edu Fourth Author: Tsu-Yin Wu, Eastern Michigan University, twu@emich.edu Correspondence Author: Meriam Caboral-Stevens, Eastern Michigan University
Crowdfunding
One provision that is receiving a great deal of attention is crowdfunding.31 As you may know, crowdfunding is the use of the Internet to raise money in small individual amounts from a large number of investors.32 Globally, crowdfunding platforms raised almost $2.7 billion in 2012, an increase of more than 80% from the prior year.33 Today, crowdfunding platforms in the U.S. generally operate on a “pre-sale” or “donation-and-reward” model, in which participants contribute to a project they wish to support in exchange for a copy of the finished work or some other token of thanks.34 Currently, crowdfunding may not be used to sell company shares in the United States. Under current laws, that would be a public offering and would require registration with the SEC, a process that, admittedly, can take time and money, but is designed to inform and protect investors.35 The proposed exemption for crowdfunding would allow companies to comply with specific requirements applicable to crowdfunding, in lieu of the full public offering registration process.
Although the SEC’s crowdfunding rules are a work in progress, some specific criteria are set forth in the JOBS Act itself.36 Two important points to note are:
• First, businesses using the crowdfunding exemption will be permitted to raise up to $1,000,000 in a 12-month period.37 I expect that this limit will keep crowdfunding focused primarily on providing capital to small business. Among other requirements, crowdfunding offerings will need to provide investors and the SEC with specified disclosures; however, these disclosures are expected to be substantially less fulsome than those currently required from issuers in registered public offerings; and

• Second, the crowdfunding exemption will allow any individual investors to participate, regardless of their wealth or sophistication — although aggregate crowdfunding purchases by an individual investor will be subject to annual limits, based on annual income and net worth.
Crowdfunding may turn out to be a very useful mechanism by which small businesses can raise needed capital, by harnessing the power of the Internet and social media to connect entrepreneurs with individuals. Nonetheless, many observers are concerned that unscrupulous persons will try to take advantage of this innovation for nefarious purposes.38 For example, one state securities regulator is concerned that the so-called “wisdom of the crowd” won’t be enough to protect unsophisticated purchasers, because crowdfunding provides investors with “almost no bargaining power and little information.”39 In addition, the president of the national association of state securities regulators has expressed concern that investors will be stuck with any shares they buy through crowdfunding, as trading markets for the shares may never develop.40
Clearly, all investments bear some degree of risk, and it may never be possible to do away entirely with fraud. However, to the extent that Internet crowdfunding increases the risk of fraud, it will be incumbent upon the SEC and state securities regulators to counter such increased risk through robust investor education and outreach efforts, and through strong enforcement efforts, when fraud occurs.
Regulation A-Plus
A second provision of the JOBS Act geared towards small business is the so-called “Regulation A-plus” offering that will permit companies to raise up to $50,000,000 in any 12-month period by publicly offering freely-tradable equity, debt, or convertible securities.41
Companies issuing securities in reliance on Regulation A-plus will be required to provide an offering circular to purchasers with relevant information about the company.42 The Regulation A-plus process and related disclosures are required to include audited financial statements, but will not be as broad as the requirements applicable to offerings that are fully-registered with the SEC. I expect that state securities regulators will work with the Commission to develop a uniform offering circular intended to meet both federal and state law requirements under the proposed exemption.
The principle underlying Regulation A-plus is that it will be used by companies that are likely to be smaller than companies that opt to register with the Commission, which typically raise amounts that exceed $50,000,000. However, I intend to take a watchful approach to this rulemaking to make sure that investor protection is maximized to the extent possible.43
The Need for Regulatory Caution
Crowdfunding and Regulation A-plus have the potential to change the landscape for financing small businesses. These developments may ultimately bring benefits to entrepreneurs, and particularly to women and minorities who have traditionally had difficulty in finding financing. In fact, Title VII of the JOBS Act specifically requires the SEC to conduct outreach to inform minority and women-owned businesses of the changes made by the Act.44
If these new capital-raising methods are implemented with thoughtful rules that protect investors and maintain a fair and level playing field, investors will have the confidence they need to participate in those offerings, and companies will benefit from having less expensive methods to raise capital. However, these new exemptions also call for a degree of regulatory caution — if they become instruments of fraud and manipulation, the resulting harm to investors may impair future capital formation, cost jobs, and hurt entrepreneurs and small business owners. That harm can be particularly devastating to women and minorities.
Conclusion
The potential for immigrants to grow our economy is enormous. This is particularly true of the Hispanic community, the fastest growing segment of the immigrant population. In 1968, Latinos represented only about 4½% of the total U.S. population.45 Today, the Census Bureau estimates that Hispanic-Americans make up 16.7% of the U.S. population.46 Clearly, Hispanic-Americans will continue to play an important role, as our nation faces the challenges of the 21st Century.47
Today’s young Hispanic-Americans will be our teachers, our doctors, lawyers and engineers, our business leaders and entrepreneurs, and our elected officials and community leaders of tomorrow. There is no doubt that young Hispanic-Americans will continue to contribute in greater numbers to the success of this nation. In 2011, for the first time, the number of 18- to 24-year-old Hispanics enrolled in college exceeded two million, reaching a 16.5% share of all college enrollments.48 This milestone represented not just population growth, but also increasing high school graduation rates, which rose from just 64% in 2000 to 78% in 2010.49 And just last week, a report by the Pew Research Center found that a record 69% of all Hispanic-American high school graduates in the class of 2012 enrolled in a two-year or four-year college that fall. That is a college enrollment rate higher than that of white high school graduates.50
The important contribution of Hispanic-Americans and other immigrants to our future is clear. That’s why I’m hopeful that we will finally see real immigration reform that will bring people out of the shadows and allow them to flourish and contribute to our society. Freeing that powerful human capital can take our country to new levels of prosperity. That’s particularly true of young Latinos and Latinas that came to this country as children and know no other country as their own. We need immigration reform that will allow them to fulfill their dreams and, in so doing, take our country to greater heights.
I have a profound faith in the United States. Like many immigrants, I came to this country with very little and I am grateful to this country for the opportunities it has provided. I arrived as a refugee from Cuba as a six-year-old child with little more than the clothes I was wearing, and did not speak a word of English. Fortunately, I was reunited with my parents a few years later, and I was able to pay my way through college and law school by taking on jobs ranging from being a “stock boy” in a yarn store to loading baggage and cargo into airplanes at the Miami International Airport.
It is a long way from the hot tarmac of the airport in Miami to the halls of our nation’s capital, but I carry that experience with me. In my view, there is no greater country than the United States. I also believe that our country’s diversity, and our nation’s tradition of welcoming new generations of immigrants with “open arms,” is a significant reason for that greatness. Thus, our government needs to have common sense policies that will utilize all of our talents — regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender — and help enhance our country’s economic development.
People from around the world are drawn to America for its promise of freedom and opportunity. Truly, we are an immigrant nation. Those that are fearful about the influx of newcomers only need to remember the contributions that immigrants have made to American prosperity.
I’ll end my remarks where I began. I’m delighted to be here. Organizations like the GHCC help support and strengthen our businesses, our communities, and our country. Thank you for all that you do.
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Ii was very important meeting in Jamaica smart restaurant .Lot of intetectual distinguished ladies and gentleman diffident fields of sciences and arts about the issue of the problems facing the Bangladesh today. The president of the democratic alliance Mr. Muhammad Shabudddin Bachchu has announced his new party democratic alliance with a doctrine of glorification and beautification of Bangladesh .He demands Bangladesh need full pleasure democracy ,2ndly he demands all criminal activities should be uprooted,3rd he demand economic development for economic lower class peoples ,in development of Bangladesh has to be active participation of Bangladeshi are living in foreign country in politics in all other processes in Bangladesh and he demands strong political party .that’s why he founded new party Bangladesh democratic alliance. As he is the founder father of this party he told our party would be the best challenging party to solve problems with honesty and organized and gather all intellectual groups from all USA.president Mr. Muhammad Iqbal Husain, Bikrompur association united states and distinguished extraordinary outstanding young political leader democratic alliance said: we are new today but we are fo tomorrow for better Bangladesh to perfectly create Bangobhondus Golden Bengal (SONAR BANGLA)
The integrity of the Bangladesh lies in the fact that the government authorities in Bangladesh are not mindful of doing things smarter, which perhaps we all agree. But another factor largely contributing to the situation is the lake of a proper methodology to run variety of government departments or ministries. Lack of equipment or funds, moreover lake of honest people whatever is the case, has made the third world problems multiply in years that could have overpowered with a proper strategy to cope them. The term “developing countries” has been used by many across the world to identify the countries that are still under the process of making a mark economically. Methodically country’s economy decides the category of a country on the world map.
Government officials are not paying a heed to many of the issues faced by people in these countries. Rights are not protected; the ones below the poverty line are going further down under while the elite class is thriving socially and financially. Out of many of the social evils in these societies, the one that has crept in the most and poisoned the very structure of it is corruption. Justice is sold in many of these countries and nobody takes care of the poor and fragile strata of the society while the powerful enjoy committing corruptions of different forms and freeing from all dues. it is an irony that every sector in these countries has been destroyed to this menace. a threat to the society, corruption has by and large made every government organization fall from its grace and nobody feels wrong about it.
Even in ministries and departments of state, ‘lack of attention’ and ‘no will to change’ is the cause of such a sad state of affairs. Health, finance, education, railway, natural resources, all the sectors are being used for their own gains. None of the funds and taxes paid by the citizens is put to a good use in the respective sectors. no proper infrastructure is made available to the doctors so that they can work on diseases and their treatments. People cannot even get a proper treatment for the minor illnesses in many such countries. in the education sector, quality is deteriorating with each passing year. nothing on reality has being done to look after the different setups like railways, roads and all the transportation and constructions are in an unimpressive condition if compared those with the developed or even semi-developed countries.
The fact is, no proven working methodology neither an efficient technology ecosystem are accessible in such countries by any of its governing bodies to ensure an economically thriving and a technologically significant society. With many countries now a days working hard to make sure that their citizens are getting every facility in their homeland somewhat similar to the developed countries, are completely neglecting this truth that its right technology along with right methodology indeed has the potential to bring the changes and can help achieving such heights. We will be discussing primarily the methodology part of the mystery in this article and the technology part will be discussed in my upcoming Articles. A swift and affective plan should be employed by the governments of such countries with latest technologies like artificial intelligence & cognitive and working methodologies like agile, lean to ensure that whatever these government departments are doing has some effects on the real economic growth and betterment of the society. Taking a cue from different industries like it, manufacturing, automobile, aviation etc.; researchers propose technology and methodology like agile & lean together to solve third world country problems on a larger scale. The structure of working in these methodologies makes them efficient in almost every industry. And they have been employed in many developed countries in different formats to solve real world problems. Just as in a software development process, the agile development ensures a quick and effective solution of software development problems, the same methodology, if applied by the government, can bring about a lot of changes and make it a much better one. Agile is an iterative process where the workers review and repeat their actions in order to reach a final goal. Reviewing is a great practice to help enhance a project and make it stand out even in the context of any government projects.
This can be adopted in all government departments and projects where incremental, iterative and interactive approach will largely increase the probability of success; of course the other factors discussed above can nullify the positive move. Likewise, government should adopt this approach in railway, construction, oil & natural gas, mining, heavy industries, agriculture and other departments and govt. sponsored projects to keep a check and balance on the proceedings of the project and working of different departments. The “sprint” approach ensures that the project is being supervised effectively and kept an eye rather than running the entire marathon and looking at the project once it has completed. Agile methodology ensures a check and balance of every step due to its iterative nature, which is good for every single project that should be installed for the betterment of the developing nations. This will prove to be a smooth process for the authorities since it will enable them to complete every project in a more deliberate manner. Now talking about the waste and delay in processes across all government projects in most of the third and second world countries, it is astonishing to see that how governments of these countries leave no stone unturned to keep every project of theirs hanging in balance for a longer period of time until the ones affected by it either give it up or are no more in this world. Ironically, many Bangladesh are facing these crises for ages. Why? This is because of huge wastes, loopholes in the planning and working methods of the governments which seriously demands introspection.
The integrity, solidarity and ideology of Bangladesh and lean methodologies were two entities; lean manufacturing introduced by to make sure that there is reduced wastage in manufacturing as much as possible and the integrity introduced by advocating advocates reduction of defects. How are these methodologies going to help improving government projects and departments of developing countries? The idea of lean six-sigma is to ensure less waste and added quality in every step of the process. This practice is believed to change the behavior and thinking of an organization. A transformation in perspective ensures that people are doing better and bigger. This methodology can also help in other important projects like road, railway, construction; mining etc. different types of lean methodology like visual stream mapping and the 5s system has proven to be effective methods in different government projects of many developed countries. Lean philosophy has been adopted in the healthcare by the governments of many countries. It is supposed to be the best and most promising methodology in healthcare since six-sigma works on the principle of reducing defects. These defects might include the difference between life and death. Such life-threatening errors can be eliminated with the help of lean six-sigma and patient health and safety are kept intact. You must have heard about agile and lean implementation in many different industries, but directing this concept toward the government departments and projects as a hybrid framework is something that is completely new. Similar approach has already been implemented successfully in a small scale construction project in Bangladesh need under strong supervision with honest educated young generations who is morally fit.
Philosophy lean methodology is something that is already been applied in the some of the government departments in few developed countries, but hybridizing it with agile powered with different technology platforms is what makes it unique. So, the framework which I recommend for these countries is a hybridized version which leverages the best of agile and lean techniques which can be tailored to certain extent as per the need of the domain and scenario of implementation.Finally, these methodologies may not directly be applied to all types of government projects or for that matter any project, in their original form and may need some amount of thoughtful tailoring to make those perfectly fit for the specific scenarios. But it’s guaranteed that a step towards implementing those even in their crude form can bring numerous benefits and confidence.The soul of development introduced the phrase integrity of development from into the radical language of the revulaton.the concepts originates from democratic philosophy but it was not expressed n those words and it remained buried for decades under the assaults of military dictator of Bangladesh. We for the first time made concept explicit and conscious and presented it as the core of democratic doctrine of development.democrate showed that control form by the working class is essential to the mentioning of developed society. Moreover. he showed that the his development movement has always been divided between adherents of development from and those who believe n changing society from , in which some facsimile of society development would be handed down to the grateful masses by an enlightened elite. The struggle between these ideas could only be fought and resolved within the progressive movement to rise of bangladesh.capitalism or socialisms ,like any social system ruled by a minority class, has no divided loyalty or question about its meaning , and stands unalterably opposed to mass decision –making from the bottom up. it is organized to justify in equality- the hierarchy and authority of a wealthy privileged elite who claim to be more meritorious , virtuous and superior to the exploited and oppressed majority –at whose expense this elite lives. it is only when this social majority-at whose expense this elite lives again and again. it is only when this social majority the working class –rebels against its exploitation and oppression that the movement democratic social reform below can take shape as political force..
Historically the democratic wakes movement has gone forward only when it has learned to build its own leadership from bottom up. it is in this process of becoming conscious of its capacity, and its potential power, that the Bangladeshi working class by the power of its arguments, survived as an underground classic it went through all sector of development of Bangladesh now her ideas a new left was beginning internationally and the newly radicalized were trying to understand on what basis a DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE unique movement could be rebuilt s becomes fit to rule Bangladesh and democratic leder chairman makes worker perfect working forces in all developing sector his ideas was one of hundreds of sectors produced by the peoples and of the peoples. it was ideas of almost all of them are now forgotten.
any way he provided the intecllectual armor a new generation of golden bengal revolutionary activists when the old left was in crisis and decay. we have practical vew of development of bangladseh because its case is as competing today as it was few years ago in bangladesh.developmr.sahabuuuddin program from below did not win out in the present movement of the past years wis tragic but obvious still , the concept of golden bengal development did provide a continuity with the revolutionary tradition of the past . now, past false leadership has disintegrated and mr.batchuus reform democratic ideas is increasingly unable to provide meaningful reform .meanwhile a new radical mood is appearing internationally as working class bangladesh emerges from the long years of retreat.she contol powe and contoldemocratic ideas n perfect way cause of development issue..in this book the ideas of hasinas policy fom below have enewed relevance of bangladesh to be golden bengal if power can control with in stable constant. hasina is one of th handful of revolutionary development movement in bangladesh to make the transition to radical activity and ledership in our timeshe is noe of the best leader of democratic in our time too she led the to affiliation with the other movement by joining the international activity in united nations hasina analysis of the political view that it wass neither any optimist policy .it was ,rather bureaucratic collecvists – a new class society with ruling class just as oppressive and exploitative as the capitalist exploitive rulling class in past but not driven by the sam dynamic. her analysis distinguishing her views from those ofthepeopls which holds the view developed by past socty of bangladeshiand she helped to organize a rank and file movement against the no strike pledgein her speeches in united nations and progressive action howto dvelop bangladesh with a new international fromher work we can combined the theory of revoltion of to mak bangladesh golden bengal.
she wold be enormously prod of the new generation of strglle revolutionary fighters for golden bengal as it is rising star of bangladesh.he fond crises today is a crises in the meaning of jstice .for the first time in the history of the world , very likely a majority of its people label themselves develop in one senseor another,bt there has nevr been a time when the label was less informative but hasinas activities ofdevelopment of bagladesh is now informative. the nearest things to a common content of the various development program is a negative anti – social. on the positive side , the range of conflicting and incomparative ideas that call themselves politician is wider than the spread of ideas within borgeoiss world but mr.batchuu forwarding his activitist to develop life of bangladeshi peoples. and she performed it categorically.

( ii).
povety is a part of this side on one hand,but it is wider and different from it on the othe hand.it is not only a domestic but an international problem. de to such importance, the righteous politics and the school of thoughts of evey period paid attention to it.hasinas to all views , he has highlighted the viewpoint of rightouss politics has and its solutions this issue in first pior tosolve.he talked in various occations about the viewpoints of the other methods and school of thoughts. sheconducteda comparativestudy of thease views and that of Bangladesh development pocess. he many times mentioned the source of politics for tacking this polems .this he new doctrine .theasesorcess he gave a conclusions of her long and valuable speachess and discussion with he ministers secretary etc.and he showed how bagladesh righteous power tackled this problems and uprooted it. he is really a good and healthy research on this topic and deserved to get gain and he gained succeesfully even the better than Dr. younus a nobel lawriats methodology.Dr. younus reseasearch and method show not to social bussinessactually the explotation in th name of loan but without any loan system but the the avoiding loan system how to involved in workforces . his example garment section in bangladesh is the best pocess to earn foreign currency and revinew to develop bangladesh and its worker specially involved women as a best work forces than mens.thie cedit of this translation goes to him and accept humble regars and uprooted the povety from amongst the bagladeshi especially.hasinas wrk new for the development to talk about the economic system of bangladesh. ther is a vast and long ideas forthat to focus. it poves he practical wok to develop bangladesh .in contains in details the laws of righteous economic distribution and its especial advices to the human and social activity in regad to the wealth, its production, exchange distribution waste and uls and the rles and limits fixed fo it, rules by which a man and women establish justice and created balance between the freedom ofa men and women and favor of the society ,between the bangladesh and world poverty solution.so democratic alliance deserve nobel lawrat foas a example povety to develop country.
a discussion about the social system of economy needs a detailed study to which destined duing study of the realistic duty of the poo-rate fo many years.his completed that study but was not fee while another study occupied her mind. hope that she wold help contry especially. all heractivities are depended upon his wishes and with progressive projects that she is going to do.only an especial part economic systems that is related to the problem poverty and its way to tackle , care fo the rights of the poor people, guarantee of their need and security of their honor in the developed society and under the shade of righous justified system.he mast look forwad to lower economic class such as:to develop bosti that we called in our homeless people living in dark places where is no pure water ,living with with dirty homes made of papers dity clothers they need home ,healthcare,foods, works etc etc.
1. To develop red light distictics women and children.organize them to live in particular one places not everywhere but one places with facilities of healthcare ,shelter and councilling services to count them as a citizen of the country.help them to educate them religiously that they can find their way to prope living.
2. outer beutification cities and villages ,develop sanitary and hygienic conditions ,cleanness is necessary all building houses and shops market places , color them ,peoples dress to be maintained in outside homes wearing shoes , pants and not use langi while they were in outsides homes.Need proper cultural revulation in education,dressing standardized sanitary and hygienic level
3. mosques mandir and all prayer places to organize two part one for womens and another for men and develop them with the care of Alem , hafez and alema and hafeza.here the placeswhere moral spiritual develop can be performed.mosque is the unique places where our alem can help to build proper honest citizen of the country.utilize ALEM ,HAFEZA ALEMA
4. government should take care health system to give poper health care of the citizen of the county.
5. adults care , children care ,women care should be under the govnment control.
6. robbery brief should be control with severe punishment or life long prison or cutting hands if this polcy will taken bangladesh will be rapist should be hangewithout delay and killer should be hanged without delay.if this policy will implement bangladesh will be example the contry of justice and will be free from crimes.
7. islamic alem should be counted as a savior of the countys young generations and mandir or othe religious and non beliver wisemans should be counted thei ideas also can be implemented ,no one saying bad words all wise suggestions should be respect and implemented to develop country.politican should be respected as the wellwisher of the country.police should be control that they can not use thei in miscalculative way.they are eally savior our moralty. honesty. and disciplenes.military should remain to save our country from foreign enemy not to involved in politics.we spend lot of mony foren currency for the. to save our country .proper histry should be wriiten to educate our future citizen of the country.all brightest son and daughters our should be remembered with hono and respect.
I know new immerge leader is that leaderthat he is going to do and he is doing it rightly.cities and law creating our people but the theie will be one name in history that is democratic alliance .what is Bangladesh today it would be better tomorrow.